Vol 44, No 4 (2012)
Cover -1USAMB USAMB
Research Journal of Agriculural Sciencemore abstract
The influence of sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plant on production at Medicago sativa species. pag. 3-6Narcis BAGHINĂ, Alexandru MOISUC
Sludges from the municipal wastewater treatment plant may have valuable agronomical properties. Using sludge in agriculture is encouraged, as long as it is properly handled and it doesn’t cause damage on the quality of the soil and agricultural products.(5) Using such sludges in the case of perennial fodder cultures may bring some financial and ecological advantages but only under rational use and after some thorough chemical tests have been carried out. The present paper presents some preliminary data on the evolution of some productive features of the specie Medicago sativa where different doses municipal sludges have been used. It is to be mentioned that these doses have not exceeded the maximum allowed by the EU and national legislation. Lucerne is a well-regarded plant due to its usefulness for various purposes but its usage as a fodder plant represents the most important role. The superiority of lucerne over other fodder cultures is firstly explained by large yields of forage, by the high quality of the forage and by its capacity of production over the years without being reseeded. The main characteristics have been studied regarding quality and quantity of fodder. The main characteristic taken under study was the production of green mass, depending on the sludge doses used, between 70 and 80 of green mass t/ha. The second productive characteristic taken under study was the height of the plant, this being determinant in what regards the quantity of fodder obtained. The height of the lucerne plants varied according to the sludge doses used, between 73cm and 96 cm. Another characteristic regarding the quality and the quantity of fodder is the content and the production of dry matter obtained per unit of surface. The quantity of dry matter varies between 15 and 19 tons of dry matter obtained per hectare.more abstract
Medicago sativa, municipal sludge, production, influence, usage.
The study of evolution at the species Dactylis glomerata productive character under the influence of different doses of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant pag. 7-10Narcis BAGHINĂ, Alexandru MOISUC
The Orchard grass (Dactylis glomearata, ssp. Glomerata) is a large scale plant, often exceeding 100cm in height. The stem is erect or genicular upward at the base. The shoots are bombed out and thick at the base and quickly lignify, which prevents them from falling easily (5). The Orchard grass is perennial grass forage with a great culture resisting from 5 to 8 years, depending on operating conditions, the culture area, etc. (5) By analyzing the production capacity of the species Dactylis glomerata depending on the amount of sewage sludge that has been given, we can observe an increase in its range, depending on the amount of sludge and implicitly the nitrogen given. Production of dry matter taken obtained from Dactylis glomerata biomass, under the influence of different doses of municipal sludge has the same growth curve as for the production of green mass. Plant height is also an important feature when talking about production, since this fact significantly influences production. In our case, the average height of plants varies between 88.5 cm (at the control) and 96.7 (the version sludge variant of 40t/ha) that height being registered in the biological limits described for this specie.more abstract
Dactylis glomerata, urban sludge, production, dry matter, height
THE INFLUENCE OF THE ALLELOPHATIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PLANTS pag. 11-16Cristian BOSTAN, Adina HORABLAGA, Alina Lavinia CĂLUȘERU, Cristian RUJAN, Adrian COJOCARIU, Marius COMAN, Andreea GHICA
This paper provides data regarding the mechanisms developed by plants (based on the biochemical interactions) in order to survive, and the use of these biochemical metabolites in sustainable agriculture systems. The research carried out highlights the effect given by loline alkaloids that were determined in low alcohol extracts of Lolium perenne, on the germination and the growing at the early development stages of the perennial grasses seedlings of Dactylis glomerata, Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra. The material plant used in bioassays consisted of roots, stems, leaves and inflorescence of Lolium perenneculese from the western part of Romania, the Banat region and seeds of Dactylis glomerata, Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra. In order to test the seed germination, the standard method was used. The growth of the embryonic rădăciniţelor and tulpiniţelor was determined by biometrizare. The seed germination can be influenced by allelopathic compounds, the allelopathic inhibiting action of the seed germination is more frequent than the stimulation. The tested extracts that were applied in three different concentrations (alkaloids concentrations = 0.668% , dilution I = 0.334%, alkaloids concentrations and dilution II = 0.083%) because the biological activity of the allelophatic compounds is dependent on a characteristics concentration step. The studies on the seed germination ability under the influence of various extracts were made by several researchers which concluded that the direct effect of the allelophatic compounds can be a stimulating effect, but often it is an inhibitory effect. Many cultivated and spontaneous species produce allelochemical compounds that reduce the growth in the seedlings. This phenomenon is mainly due to direct interference with the cell division processes or with the growth hormones. Our studies have shown that allelophatic substances can inhibit the seed germination but can affect the growth and development of the plant receivers of these substances, so that allelophatic phenomenon is a cause-effect relationship between substances with allelophatic potential and physiological response of the target plant. The performed studies results show the following aspect: Lolium perenne extracts present inhibitory allelophatic activity on the seed germination and the application of the extracts doses in different concentrations shows that as the alleophatic substances concentration increase, the inhibitory effect increase; the growth of the plants maintained in an environment treated with extracts, is lower compared to the control sample and the effect is maximal at the highest concentration.more abstract
chemical componds, allelopathy, germination bioassays, growth bioassay
THE USE OF THE BIOCHEMICAL METABOLITES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS pag. 17-21Cristian BOSTAN, Adina HORABLAGA, Alina Lavinia CĂLUŞERU, Marius COMAN, Irina MARIAN, Adrian COJOCARIU, M. MEREU, Dorin GAITIN
There is a global effort to eliminate the amount of the chemicals used in the production technology, by the introduction of biological and ecological substances. One of the possible solutions is the allelophaty, the use of a chemical interactions between plants. The substances with allelochemical potential are very diverse and are involved in many metabolic processes. These substances belong to different classes of secondary metabolites: phenols, terpenes, alkaloids and can be present in different plants organs.The aim of this paper is to establish an interface between the biochemical study and morphological study of the plants, emphasizing the structural and functional changes that the allelophatic biochemical interactions between plants can induce. The tolerance of Lolium perenne was assessed by the seedlings growing and by the externalization of the morphological characters, after the extracts application that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids and ergot alkaloids obtained from the aerial part of Dactylis glomerata, Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra plants. The idea of the influence of some chemical substances eliminated in the environment by organisms on other neighboring organisms, was released when the results of some physiologists researchers led to the conclusion that the action of these metabolites is beneficial or not to the neighboring, receivers organisms. Based on the opinion that the plants from a vegetal community associate by the virtue of some " affinities" or "chemical tolerances," it was established an experience in which it was followed the extracts effect on the growth and development of Lolium perenne plants. The determination of the growing and development of the plants treated with extracts was made by biometrization and the applied extract doses were : 10ml/pot, 40ml/pot and 80ml/pot every 7 days. The biometric measurements were performed for the main sprout length, the number of leaves / sprout and the sprouts number. As regarding the influence of the extracts with alkaloids content on the growth and development of perennial ryegrass, the experience has shown that as the amount and the concentration of alkaloids increase, it affects in a negative way the growth and the development of Lolium perenne species.more abstract
perennial grasses, synthetic substances, ecological agriculture,extracts allelopathy
CHANGES IN FLORISTIC COMPOSITION OF GRASSLAND IN FIBIS, TIMIŞ COUNTY UNDER THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION pag. 22-25Marius COMAN, Alexandru MOISUC
In this study the objective was to determine the changes of the floristic composition under the influence of organic, mineral and organic – mineral fertilizers on the vegetation cover of a hayfield from the hill area of western Romania, respectively Fibiş (Timiş County). In the year 2011 the average of the annual rainfall amount is 484 mm. On the season, the precipitation is rich in summer (30.7%), followed by spring (25.1%), fall (23.9%), and winter with less precipitation (20.3 Soils perdominante in Fibis area are the reddish-brown The experimental field was organized by setting 9 fertilisation variants ( 3 organic, 3 mineral and 3 organic – mineral fertilisation variants) and a control non-fertilised variant. The research plots were set on a homogenous vegetation sector of the hayfield. The fertilisation variants applied were the following: V1 – control;V2-20 t sheep manure,V3-40 t sheep manure,V4-60 t sheep manure,V5-20 t sheep manure+ P50 ;V6-20 t sheep manure+ P50++ K50; V7-20 t sheep manure+ N50 + P50 + K50 ;V8 - N100 + P50 + K50 ; V9 - N150 + P50 + K50 ; V10 - N100+100 + P50 + K50; The plots were set in blocks with ten variants and three replicates, each having a surface of 20 square meters (2m x 5m). The vegetation data were collected using the linear point quadrate method, thus being calculated several vegetation features. After DJUKIC et al., (2008) the manure applied on grassland determinates changes in the floristic composition involving a higher percentage of legumes in comparison with other species and grasses. The vegetation features taken in account were: the botanical composition, the biodiversity (species richness, Shannon and Simpson indexes),). The fertilisation has influenced mainly the biodiversity and the light and soil reaction ecological spectre. In a permanent grassland agro-ecosystem the floristic composition varied depending on substances flow, soil nutrients availability and climatic conditions (MOISUC et all 2001) The floristic composition studies need long time researches, as in the case of biodiversity, to provide sustainable results (DJUKIC et al., 2008)more abstract
floristic composition , changes, botanical composition, biodiversity.
EVOLUTION OF THE QUALITY INDEXES OF THE TURF-GRASS FROM THE QUEEN MARIA PARK FROM TIMIŞOARA, ROMANIA – CASE STUDY pag. 26-30Bogdan COSTEA, Veronica SĂRĂŢEANU, Marinel Nicolae HORABLAGA
The aim of this work is to analyse a case study regarding the evolution of a turfgrass surface from Timişoara (Timiş County, Romania, respectively the Queen Maria Park turfgrass. The data have been collected in 2011 year in five stages, respectively: 17 February, 18 March, 19 April, 19 May and 16 June. The observations have been realised visually using the NTEP Turfgrass Evaluation Guidelines. There have been considered the following NTEP indexes: density, texture, genetic colour, winter injury, pests and diseases resistance, drought stress and general aesthetic aspect. The ranking scale was from 0 to 9, where 0 represents the worst situation and 9 the best one. The conclusions of the research were the following: (i) the turf has bare soil spots remained after the winter, where at the beginning of spring are setting the weeds; (ii) the turf has many weeds, both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous, their control being very difficult; (iii) presence of the weeds in turf is a consequence of the inadequate execution of the maintenance works. There is recommended to apply the maintenance work at the proper moment, mainly the over-seeding at the beginning of spring, fertilisation and mowing.more abstract
turf-grass, quality index, weeds, evolution.
THE BEHAVIOUR, LIFE CYCLE AND BIOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS OF APHIS FABAE pag. 31-37Liana Mihaela FERICEAN, Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA, Ionuț BĂNĂȚEAN – DUNEA, Olga RADA, Mihaela OSTAN
This paper presents data referring to the colonization and dispersal behaviour, the life cycle of aphid species from potato cultivations for a period of three years 2005-2007, from Didactic Station Timisoara and Varfurile, Arad county, and biometrical measurements which point out the morphological caracteristics of Aphis fabae. Apterous adult have green-brown or black ovoid body and big marginal tubercles on prothorax and on abdominal segments I and VII; body length varies from 1.8 to 2.4 mm. Alatae aphid are more elongate with head and thorax shiny black; oviparous females with distinctly swollen hind tibiae and abdomen is black-green.The smallest length of the body established for aphids captured in West Zone of Romania was1,40 mm, while the biggest was 2.20 mm. The average body length was 1,83 ± 0,20 mm. Regarding the length of the head and thorax, it may be noticed that the maximum length of these parts was 0,95 mm and minimum length was 0,50 mm. The average value calculated for the length of these parts was 0,77 ± 012 mm. The minimum width of head was 0.20 mm and the maximum width of head was 0.45 mm. The average value calculated for head width was 0.32 ± 0.05 mm.As far as the thorax width is concerned, this was minimum 0.40 mm and maximum 0,80 mm. Mean thorax width was 0.61 ± 0.02 mm the minimum length of the abdomen was 0,80 mm and minimum width was 0.50 mm, the maximum length of the abdomen was 1.40 mm and the maximum width was 1 mm. The mean length of the abdomen was 1.06 ± 0.12 mm, while the average value calculated for abdomen width was 0,79 ± 0,14 mm. Aphis fabae winters in egg stage on the bark of stems or branches and plum trees, where the fundatrix. in March, give birth to apterae The average multi-annual date of flight towards the potato is 20th May. From May onwards, winged virginoparae colonize numerous secondary host plants, depositing apterous nymphs on the underside of leaves or at the tips of stems. Aphid colonies increase rapidly until mid-June, then declining progressively.Winged sexuparae appear in autumn and return to primary hosts; The rate of reproduction is positively correlated with temperature which affects all biological stages.For an estimation situations of attack can be useful to be known the most common places of colonization. Also, knowledge of potato aphid life cycle constitutes a basic element of the integrated potato pests control.more abstract
Aphis fabae, behaviour, life cycle,biometrical measurements
STUDY REGARDING THE ECOPEDOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF LANDS DEGRADED BY MINING ACTIVITIES FROM RECEA QUARRY, BIHOR COUNTY pag. 38-41Ionel GAICA, Mădălina IORDACHE, Iacob BORZA, Florin CRISTA
The study area is a small area of land around the village Şuncuiuş. The sterile waste dumps, once under the influence of external natural modulating factors, tend to create hydro-geological systems with specific shapes and dynamics that evolve more or less rapidly due to their particular characteristics, influencing the odds of foresting activities. The mining activity within perimeter of Recea quarry led to profound changes of the relief resulting in geo-mechanical (landslides, compactions), pedological, agrochemical and biological changes. By estimating the impact of sterile dumps on environmental factors, several aspects have been revealed: the initial destination (forest) of lands has been changed and these have been used for storage of the mining waste, relief has been changed, instead of the stable forest associations, balanced and productive, appeared very poor and sporadic associations of ruderal herbaceous plants. The sterile dumps have been studied especially under textural and agrochemical aspects, being performed measurements regarding soil reaction, degree of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous supply, humus content, content of soluble salts. The natural flora existing on surfaces which have been affected by mining activities was completely destroyed and on these surfaces was installed a new vegetation but in a different from baseline. On the studied dump have been identified 29 species, 28 genera and 16 families. Family of Asteraceae (Compositaceae) with 9 species is the most representative. The other families are represented by 1-3 species. The dominant plant life forms were: hemicryptophytes (44,83%), followed by annual therophytes (17,24%), and megaphanerophytes (13,79%). The other categories are low represented The initial (construction) stability of the waste dumps is the most important factor in the rehabilitation process.more abstract
degraded land, mining activity, sterile dumps, vegetation, plant life forms, geoelements.
STUDY OF THE ECOPEDOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE LANDS DEGRADED BY MINING EXPLOITAION WITHIN PERIMETER OF ROSIA COMMUNE, BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA pag. 42-45Ioan GAICA, Iacob BORZA, Mădălina IORDACHE
A strong impact is manifested by the current mining exploitation on soil, putting it out of agricultural circuit for a period up to 15 years, which means important land, caused by mixture of different geological layers, natural migration of the nutritive elements through soil, acceleration of the erosion process, degradation of landscape, and instead of productive lands appear dumps (Nastea et al., 1980). The study area is a restricted area of land around the village Rosia. The natural flora of the surfaces affected by mining activities was completely destroyed and was largely installed a new type a vegetation different from the baseline.more abstract
bauxite lens, ecopedological conditions, vegetation, degraded lands, mining activity.
PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA A FURTHER ENERGETIC SPECIES pag. 46-51Andreea GHICA, Cristina DRAGOMIR, Ionel SAMFIRA
Native to the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, RCG is is a perennial grass widely distributed throughout Eurasia where it has different cytotypes. The species is mainly represented by an allotetraploid cytotype (2n=28), named P. arundinacea subsp arundinacea, and by a hexaploid form (2n=42), named subsp oehleri.The genetic data confirm the presence of a distinct population present throughout North America in the early twentieth century, but not present in Europe or Asia, ranging from Alaska, USA to New Brunswick, Canada. The strongest evidence to support the hypothesis that reed canarygrass is native to North America is the presence of herbarium specimens collected in the Northwest United States prior to the movement of agriculture into the region (Merigliano and Lesica 1998). Selection and breeding of reed canary grass cultivars with improved biomass yield potential offers the potential for genetic gains that can be realized across a broad agricultural landscape, due to the broad adaptation of this species and consistent genotypic expression across a wide range of sites. Phalaris arundinacea can be used as raw – material for paper pulp or as biofuel for combustion. Since it tolerates wet, poorly drained soils, it has generally been used for grass waterways. More recently, it has been used as a hay crop under wastewater irrigation systems using treatment effluent. Reed canarygrass is unusual in that it also has excellent drought tolerance and is an outstanding competitor and yielder under high nitrogen (N) conditions. Production of renewable energy from herbaceous crops on agricultural land is of great interest since fossil fuels need to be replaced with sustainable energy sources. Reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L. is an interesting species for this purpose.more abstract
Phalaris arundinacea, genetics features, biofuel.
IMPACT OF NITROGEN FERTILISATION ON NODULATION CAPACITY AND NITROGEN FIXATION IN FODDER PEAS (PISUM ARVENSE L.) pag. 52-56Claudiu GHIOCEL, Neculai DRAGOMIR, Rodica SCHIPOR, Carmen DRAGOMIR, Nicoleta MORARU
The present agricultural crop structure is dominated by grains (48%) and by technical plants (21%), detrimental to legumes that share only 11% of the cultivated arable area on Earth. If the area cultivated with legumes doubled, the necessary nitrogen fertilisers would reduce with 50% and production costs would reduce with 30%. The increase of areas cultivated with legumes would also balance the protein balance due to a larger amount of vegetal protein. The present paper points out the impact of nitrogen fertilisation on the nodulation capacity and on atmospheric nitrogen fixation in fodder peas (Pisum arvense L.). Research in the field of nitrogen fixation has pointed out the complexity of the impact of environmental nitrogen taken over by the plants on atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Legumes use nitrogen under nitric form (NO 3 - ), as a result of the oxidation of ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + ) from the mineral fertilisers of from organic nitrogen. These two sources of nitrogen used by the plants (NO 3 - and fixed N 2 ) are strongly dependent on the plant species, on the bacterial pool and on the environmental factors. Literature presents a consolidated scientific opinion concerning the impact of mineral nitrogen on biological nitrogen fixation: an increase of the concentration of nitrate or ammonium correlates with a decrease of the legume nodulation activity (DAVIDSON and ROBSON, 1986; EAGLESHAM, 1989). Following this work resulted in the following conclusions: Research in the field of nitrogen fixation points out the complexity of the impact of the nitrogen taken over by the plants from the environment on atmospheric nitrogen fixation.Legumes use nitrogen under nitric form (NO 3 - ) as a result of the oxidation of ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + ) from mineral fertilisers or from organic nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilisation also impact TN and RP plant content. Daily nitrogen fixation decreases from 0.60 mg/plant/day in the control variant to 0.05 mg/plant/day in the variant treated with N 100 , while the nitrogen fixation rate in relation to dry matter varies between 14.57 mg/g DM and 1.79 mg/g DM in the variant fertilised with N 100more abstract
fodder peas, nodosities, protein, fixed nitrogen.
THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION, SOIL AND CLIMATE ON THE YIELD OF GRAIN MAIZE CROPS pag. 57-62Dan GORNIC, Florin SALA
Our studies and research aimed at assessing the influence of the fertilization system and of soil and climate conditions on the yield of grain maize crops. The experimenting conditions are specific for Banat Plain, and the soil on which the tests were run, slightly gleyzed cambic chernosem, is located within Timi ș oara Didactic Station. We tested the influence of a conventional fertilization system based on complex fertilizers and ammonium nitrate, as well as the influence of a leaf fertilization system. We observed the differentiated way in which the grain maize crop used the nutrients made available by the two fertilization systems. The indicators evaluated were quantitative (yield) and qualitative (protein content, fats content and starch content). Multivariate statistical analysis highlighted that the variants were placed into three groups in relation with the quantitative indicator, as a result of differentiated use of available resources. In the case of mineral fertilization of soil, with different doses of nitrogen on different PK combinations, the correlation between variables is very significantly positive, r = 0.924; r 2 = 0.854; p < 5%. Protein is also in significant correlation with the fertilization level, r = 0.886, r 2 = 0.785, p < 5%, while the contents of fats and starch are negatively correlated, with a low degree of significance.more abstract
fertilization system, mineral and foliar fertilizers, maize, yield, quality
RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FUNGICIDE TREATMENTS UPON THE FOLIAR SUFACE INTEX (LAI) TO THE OILSEED RAPE pag. 63-67Daniel GROSZ, Valeriu TABARA, Dacian LALESCU
The paper aims to identify the main fungal substances used to combat canola diseases and the influence of those on metabolism, generative processes, physiological actions that bring production increases of canola. There have been realized studies regarding fungal active substances, the moment of applying and the way that these influence the productions nature and the percentage of oil in canola seeds. Were carried out researches in the field, being realized biometric measurements, index of leaf surface measurements (LAI - Leaf Area Index) with device LI 3000C Portable Area Meter, laboratory tests regarding (MMB (g), humidity (%) and the percentage of oil (were realized with FOSS Infratec device 124). In the experimental field were made test towards the plants height variation, the ramification degree variation, the variation of the siliqua on plant number, the variation of the seeds in siliqua number, the seeds production. The observations realised in the experimental field brought at surface an uniform bloom inside of the variants in which have been applicated fungual treatments with strobilurine, plants with a present foliage and on the inferior levels of the plant that participate at the photosynthesis process through the increase of the plant photosynthetic capacity.The treatments with strobilurin were applied in stage 51-59 BBCH, being observed increases of the leafs surface resulting a bigger photosynthetic capacity, what does influence directly the process of assimilation and grains filling. The researches have been realised in the West side of Romania, Timis county, through experiences in strips established in the field, being realised observations at level of plant with three plant protection. The calculation of the harvest data were made according to the arrangement method of the experiments in the field, and the results of the tests from vegetation regarding the plants height, the ramification degree and the number of siliqua/plant were calculated through the analyse of the statistic variations line. From seeds production point of view were obtained production increases on average with 973 kg/he in the variants in that were used two fungicides in plant protection, one with strobilurin, compared with untreated variant. That confirms the direct influence of those substances on metabolism, vegetative and generative processes of canola.more abstract
strobilurins, Leaf Area Index, production, canola.
STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF LIMITING FACTORS UPON DYNAMICS ON SURFACES CULTIVATED WITH WINTER RAPE IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS IN THE WESTERN PLAIN. (ROMANIA) pag. 68-72Dani GROSZ, Valeriu TABARA
The effects of global warming on Romanian agriculture and also on the cultures structure like oil seed rape, represents more intensively, especially in the last five years, a real challenge that aims a new approach that is regarding the soil works system, the preparing of germinate layer for a superior management of water in the soil. With all these the cultivator of the future oil seed rape will have to be the brave farmer, opened at new solutions from biotechnologies area, tolerant hybrids at diseases, pests, with good adaptability at hydro stress conditions, tolerant hybrids at efficient herbicides that can assure a combat from the beginning development phases of concurrent weeds. Looking at the cultivated areas with winter rape in the last five years in Timiş county, we can see a lot of changed because of property’s structured changed to agricultural areas, in the first time, but to agricultural mentality about the technology of oil seed rape and to the climate changes. Taking in consideration the climatic factors on which the farmer must ply in such a manner to reduce the risks of a failure in oil seed rape culture, must be adopted a system of works for soil with a minimum number of passes, a right away preparing of the soil where the preceding plant is wheat, in such a manner to close the soil capillarity to maintain the water in soil, humidity that with a minimum of precipitations registered after sowing to assure an explosive and uniform east of the culture. Although the oil seed rape culture is very technical, risky due to the climatic conditions, it remains a culture that brings the first money, a culture with an acquisition price in grew in every year, reaching an average price of 0,79 lei/kg in 2007, at 2,2 lei/kg in 2012 and this thing assures it a continued upward trend regarding the surfaces occupied in west of Romania.more abstract
limiting factors, surfaces,winter rape.
THE LOSS OF MOISTURE AND THE DRY MASS OF ANDRICUS HUNGARICUS HTG. (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) GALLS pag. 73-76Paul HAC
Galls of Andricus hungaricus Htg, forming on Quercus robur L, together with Andricus quercuscalicis Burg galls, were used for many years in Romania in tannery. Austrian-Hungarian Empire, at the end of XIXth century, exported these galls and the forestry industry substantially profited financially. Because of the high level of tannin, compared with other natural plant or product components, galls were used to tan the thickest oxen hide parts utilized for shoe making. It was discovered that gall tanneries used galls up the the year 2000 in the Pancota area of Arad County, Romania. The galls used to be collected by locals, and sold to tanners in places like Pancota, Arad County. After that, the galls used to be dried out in the attics of their own houses and a local stone mill was used to grind the galls and obtain flour used in tannery. The goal of the paper is to determine, by scientific methods, the period of time that is needed for the galls to dry out, to constant mass, and also to establish the dry mass of the Andricus hungaricus Htg galls. In order to do that, 303 galls were randomly collected from Lunca Muresului Natural Park, Arad County, Romania. All the galls were brought to the lab and were cleaned up using a plastic brush. The mass of each gall was measured every two days, using a precision balance. The measurements were stopped when the mass of the galls was constant from one determination to another, on constant lab temperature conditions (19ºC). The galls were split into 10 classes and the decline curve of the humidity was established for each class. Five galls from each class were put into lab drying oven and the dry mass was obtained, by measuring the mass of each gall every 6 hours, to constant mass. The equation that establishes the dry mass from the “green mass” was determined. The research could have a practical use in case of collecting the galls for different economical use or research (besides tannery, the galls were/are used for ink production, pharmaceutical industry and others ).more abstract
galls, Andricus hungaricus, dry mass, Quercus robur, tannery
YIELD CAPACITY LIMITATIVE FACTORS IN ARAD PLAIN SOILS pag. 77-81Andrei ILIUȚĂ, Dorin ŢĂRĂU, Bogdan BEȘTI
Soil, represent a major component in agriculture due not only to its own characteristics but also to its aggregant capacities for other environement factors influence. As agroecosystem element, the soil may favour productivity through a range of defined specific properties, such as: pH , granulometry, nutritive elements equilibrium, organic matter, thermic and hydric regime, mineralogic composition, etc. Practical action requires complex study of soil properties in interaction with soil genetics, climate and biologic factors. Approached issues in this paper refer to a 182.080 ha of agricultural terrain, belonging from the geomorphologic point of view to Aradului plain and from the hydrographic point of view to a part of Romanian south-west hydrographic system, improved by hidro –ameliorative works. We also describe microclimate (temperature, groundwater and rain regime) and phytogeographic characteristics of this area. As a result, pedogenetic factors interaction generate a numerous soil species with evolving specific characteristics. We note that soil properties cover fundamental geographical characteristics: in our research area follows the same step distribution as relief or climate. All the interpretations, evaluations and classifications have as support the pedological information resulted using soil survey methodology as it follows: Ecopedological conditions research, data organizations and processing were made accordingly to ,,Pedological studies Elaboration Methodology’’, issued by ICPA Bucuresti in 1987, copleted by ,,Romanian Soil Taxonomic System (SRTS 2003). Soil chemical, fisica, hidrofisical characteristics determinations were performed after standard metodology elaborated by tutelary scientific Institute –ICPA , in OSPA Arad laboratory. Samples harvestind and terrain evaluation were made by qualified staff accordingly to standard methology. Within this system was elaborated the Romanian lands pedo-climatic grouping, soil rating and technological characterization of the area. In overall caracterization , the paper presents data referring to soil quality status in our considered area, as basic element in its ecological and technical approach. In the same time demonstrates the necessity of correct crop assignation due to certain limitative factors.more abstract
factor, composition element, area, agroecosystem, rural
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEVERAL CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SOIL AND EARTHWORMS’ DENSITY DEPENDING ON PLANT CULTURE AND ORGANIC-MINERAL FERTILIZATION pag. 82-85Mădălina IORDACHE, Ionel GAICA, Iacob BORZA, Valentina ANDRIUCĂ, Daniela GÎRLA
Researches have been carried out on the land of Didactic Station of UASVMB Timişoara, on a cambic chernozem, low gleyed. Identification of the pedological conditions and the morphological description of soil profile, as well as soil identification by type, respectively by subtype, have been made according to Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS, 2003). Soil sampling was made by genetic horizons in natural arrangement and disturbed arrangement. Two types of organic-mineral fertilizers with granules coated with humic-potassic acids have been tested, noted L-200-HUM and SH-120. The researches have been carried out in two plan cultures, maize (Zea mays L.) and sun-flower (Helianthus annuus L.). On the soil of these crops the organic-mineral fertilizers have been applied in dose of 83 kg active substance (N)/ha. Earthworms’ extraction from soil has been realised using formaldehyde method according to ISO 23611-1/2006. There was found a higher earthworm number in maize culture than in sun-flower culture. In fertilization with L-200-Hum was found that earthworm number was considerably higher than in fertilization with SH-120. In sun-flower culture the tendency is similar, under action of fertilizer L-200-Hum was recorded a larger number of earthworms as compared to fertilization with SH-120. Generally, the values recorded for earthworm weight are related to values describing earthworm density, with several exceptions depending on species size, as well as different weights of individuals from different development stages, because juveniles weigh less than adults. The achieved results have been correlated with values of several chemical indices of soil: pH and content of total organic carbon (TOC).more abstract
earthworms, chemical, soil, plant, fertilization, pH, total organic carbon
THE PRODUCTION LEVEL OF SOME SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS FROM THE NEW GENERATION, CULTIVATED IN WEST AREA OF ROMANIA, WITH HOVEYBEES AS POLLINATORS pag. 86-90Alin JIVAN, Valeriu TABĂRĂ, Antonina RIŞCU (JIVAN)
The researches represent a novelty in the field, since there have been no other recent researches that would accurately present the special contribution that bees have on pollinating the sunflower crop. High-performance hybrids analyzed in terms of 2012 showed good yields of sunflower of over 3.400 kg/ha. The high-performance sunflower hybrids, given that the critical flowering stage is helped by bees, make very high yields of over 5.000 kg/ha. Additional bee pollination was good for sunflower in 2012, all analyzed hybrids showed yield increases ranging from 10-20%. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the major contribution that bees have in sunflower crop pollination. All hybrids, currently existing on the Romanian market, need in their blossoming stage additional bee pollination. The varieties of cultivated sunflower were from companies Syngenta hybrid Brio and Neoma, Caussade Semences hybrid Imeria and Dalia and Pioneer with hybrids PR64LE19 and PR36A90. Sowing date was within the range 02-IV.2012 and 02.V.2012. The plant generally used in the pre-planting period was wheat, but in Cenei locality at two varieties (PR36A90 and Imeria) corn was used. In the reference area, beekeepers located bee colonies for crop pollination, different in number. Likewise, the strength of these bee families was different. Following these observations, we wanted to study the effectiveness of pollination by bees with every commercial hybrid in part, and finally the sunflower production was determined for each hybrid in all localities where research was conducted. The notable difference between the numbers of bee families used as pollinators in the localities studied made the sunflower production fluctuating within the same hybrid researched. In the case of hybrid Dalia CS in Sandra locality with a number of 120 bee families, there was a yield of 3.000 kg/ha, and in locality Cenei at a number of 350 bee families, there was a yield of 3.400 kg/hmore abstract
bee families, pollen, sunflower, hybrids, yields
THE INFLUENCE OF TREATMENTS WITH INSECTICIDES APPLIED TO MELLIFEROUS RAPE CULTURE ON THE HONEYBEES GATHERING ACTIVITY pag. 91-95Alin JIVAN, Valeriu TABĂRĂ, Antonina RIŞCU (JIVAN)
These researches have been conducted to demonstrate the toxicity of chemicals in the field for bees. They are not novelty but on the other hand they are of paramount importance, since they complete the previous observations in the field. Substances that have been used are not new and in all years of observations there have been problems in the aspect of their impact on honey bees. The aim was to observe the insecticide toxicity to bees, because both substances used had devastating impact on families of bees that collected nectar and pollen from the field in the day the insecticide was sprayed on the rape culture. By statistically processing the data it can be observed that in the first monitoring week of the three variants analysed there are no significant differences in the average of the collecting bees. From a biological point of view this is a normal phenomenon, thus bee families under study had a uniform degree of development, until the moment the rape culture treatment was applied, i.e. insecticide for combating pests. In the second and the third week of monitoring, there are big statistical differences between the witness and the two variants. The witness had a constant value of around 300 bees followed by a growth of 450 bees. In the case of the latter variants, where insecticide treatments had been applied, the average of bee numbers, in the same period, at hives in the two localities, was a lot smaller (180 bees) as compared to witness locality (320 bees). Between variants L1 and L2 i.e. localities Comlosul Mic and Teremia Mare, data shows that there is a slight significance, insecticides used for conducting activities have disturbed the bees collected from both locations. In the second locality in the third week of observations, there was a shortage of bees, with an average of 110 bees. This number is very small compared to the witness where there were identified 370 bees in the third week.more abstract
honeybee, identified, gathering, toxicity
THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION AND SEEDING DENSITY ON FLAX OIL PRODUCTION QUALITY pag. 96-102Adrian LAZA, Georgeta POP
Due to the oil quality which conteins omega 3 and omega 9 fatty acids and the pleasant taste, flax oil, in addition to traditional uses, increasingly finds new uses in areas where until recently there were no data on the use of this culture. Among the new areas of use, areas where there is a growing demand for raw materials, we can specify: medicine, food industry (pastry and bakery), cosmetics. This paper presents the values of seed production and physical indices (mass of 1000 grains and hectoliter weight) obtained in five varieties of flax oil approved in Romania, under the influence of some foliar fertilization products and different densities, in order to determine whether these values depend on applied products and the influence on production quality. The biological material used consists of linseed varieties Lirina, Alexin, Floriana, Florinda and Iunia 96 sown at different densities of 600 germinable seeds/m², 800 germinable seeds/m² and 1000 germinable seeds/m². Fertilization was performed on following agrofunds: N 0 P 0 , N 64 P 48 , N 96 P 64 , N 64 P 48 + foliar fertilizer combination Fertileader Viti + Corona K, N 96 P 64 + foliar fertilizer combination Fertileader Magical + Corona K. The best yields were obtained from Florinda variety fertilized with N 96 P 64 + foliar fertilizer combination Fertileader Magical + Corona K , 800 germinable seeds/m² seeding density, density that ensures adequate nutritional space for flax oil plants. Good results were also obtained at the other varieties, where official production values were exceeded. Regarding the analyzed physical indices, mass of 1000 grains and hectoliter weight, no major deviations were observed from the official descriptions of studied linseed varieties. The only differences occurred regarding the mass of 1000 grains at two varieties (Iunia 96 and Alexin) where the index registered a slight increase. The results obtained by Mr. I. Neştian during the experiments conducted to develop the PhD thesis with the title “Research on the influence of some ecological, biological and technological factors on production and seed quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), in order to diversify areas of use”, once again reinforce the results from the literature according to which, fertilization, as input to the culture of flax oil, is fully justified economic. The author concluded that, regardless of environmental conditions during the three years of experiment, mineral fertilization always produced very significant increases in production (Neştian I., 2007).more abstract
flax oil, fertilization, production quality, varieties
THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOME ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON BIOMETRIC MEASUREMENT RESULTS FROM LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. pag. 103-108Adrian LAZA, Georgeta POP
Flax is a medicinal plant used since ancient times originates from the Indian area. In the past it was so valuable that it was used as currency. Although currently it does not have the same value, flax is used for its medicinal, decorative and textiles qualities. For the early settlers of America, flax was indispensable. Flax seeds were used as food and to produce oil. Today, flax is widely cultivated for seed oil production. Some growers appreciate the plant for its great blue flowers and some are harvesting the seeds for consumption, especially for herbal teas. In blooming, pollination and fecundation phase, thermal oscillations hinder fecundation, formation and maturation of flax seeds. Under optimum conditions of moisture in the soil, the root system can provide to the plants enough water for covering growth phases. Water shortages during the growth of the stem, causes significant production declines due to reduced stem height and leaf area (the number of leaves per plant is reduced). Excess of moisture in blooming phase, causes plant fall and reduces production. Excess of precipitation in the maturity phase determines culture weeding, loss of production and oil. Flax works well on soils with medium texture, deep, with high fertility, well-structured, well supplied with water, weakly acidic to neutral reaction, plane without dales, easily accessible during the growing season. The paper presents the values of some biometric measurements (number of branches , number of capsules/plant and number of seeds/capsule) obtained in five varieties of flax oil approved in Romania, under the influence of some ecological factors, in order to determine if these values depend on the studied factors. The five flax varieties used in this experience were Lirina, Floriana, Florinda, I unia 96 and Alexin sown at different densities of 600 germinable seeds/m², 800 germinable seeds/m² and 1000 germinable seeds/m². The number of branches, had an average ranging from 7.46 at Iunia 96 variety to 8.46 at Alexin variety. Given overall environmental conditions, Florinda variety obtained the best results. The studied flax varieties had a good degree of adaptability to climatic conditions in the area where the experience was conducted.more abstract
flax, ecological factors, temperature, precipitations, biometric measurements
QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF LAND, IN THE S.C. SPICU POBORU, OLT COUNTY pag. 109-115Tuti LICA, Ţărău DORIN
This paper is part of PhD research theme entitled foundation ecopedological cadastral value of the land in the county of Olt and characterize the arable land in the SC SPICU Poboru, Olt County. From the research field points were established to characterize the reprezentative researched area, opening a total of 3 profiles, from which soil samples were collected pedogenetic horizons. The soil samples were analyzed in the Office of Pedological and Agrochemical Studies Olt and standards approved by the Standars Association of Romania (ASRO). In the research field and laboratory test results were determined soil types: Luvisols vertic the plots 115 and 120 and Planosols vertic albic the plot 122. The evaluation cadastral determines how many times an area is better than another, given the fertility of, reflected by the yields they provide. Evaluation marks (under natural conditions) separates quality agricultural land of terms of their quality for agricultural use and the use by separates them in terms of productions capacity. Of land for under natural conditions in conditional evaluation, ecological characterization participated indicators to determine the factors limiting evaluation marks. For the characterizations climatic elements were used at the meteorological station data Streharet Slatina. Weather data from meteorogical station Slatina ranges from 11.1 to 12.0 0 C isotherms multiannual average (11.1 0 C for both 1980-2011 and the 2010-2011). Precipitations regime is characterized by an average annual of 575 mm (570.6 mm for the period 1980-2011 and 597.5 mm to 2010-2011), they manifested more in the form of rain. For the category of arable note evaluation marks arithmetic mean of evaluation marks for eight crops namely: grain, barley, maize, sunflower, potato, sugar beet, soybean, peas and beans. In the land investigation (SC SPICU Poboru) situation is as follows: plot 115 (TEO 1), note 66, class II, plot 120 (TEO 2), note 66, class II, plot 122 (TEO 3) note 56 class III.more abstract
soil resources, cadastral evaluation, quality classes, crops, estimated production, production undertaken
RESEARCHES REGARDING THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF SOME SILO CORN HYBRIDS, IN BATĂR CONDITIONS, BIHOR COUNTY pag. 116-119Irina MARIAN, Luminita COJOCARIU, Nicolae Marinel HORABLAGA, Dacian LALESCU, Cristian RUJAN, Adrian COJOCARIU, Cristian BOSTAN, Florin MARIAN
Corn silage is variable in nutrient value due to hybrid, climatic conditions, maturity upon harvest and conservation methods (Bittman, S., Kowalenko C.G., 2004; Jarrige, R., 1988). Corn harvested for silage is an important feed crop. The crop provides livestock producers with a high-yielding, relatively consistent source of forage and the animals with a highly digestible and palatable feed (Roth, G.W., 2001). Corn silage is a major component of diets fed to dairy cows. Even though the grain: stalk ratio and whole plant DM yields are important determinants of the adaptability of a hybrid to silage production, of greater importance is digestible DM per acre, or for dairy farmers, milk yield per acre or per ton. Hence, in recent years corn hybrids have been developed specifically for silage production (Johnson et al., 1997; Kuehn et al., 1999). The aim of this paper is to find the dependence between the production capacity of three corn hybrids used for corn silo. The research was carried out in the experimental fields belonging to society SC Frevest SRL, from the Batăr locality, Bihor county, the experience being placed on a chernozem argiloiluvial soil. The biologic material studied is represented by Mikado, PR34Y02 and Janett hybrids. The experience is placed in accordance with the randomized blocks method, in three repetitions, a parcel surface is 45 m 2 . Sowing was made on 15th April 2011. In order to determine the production of corn silo hybrids, the harvesting was done at 75th phenophase (Kernels in middle of cob yellowish-white (variety-dependent), content milky, about 40% dry matter) of corn (BBCH - grasses - U. Meier, 2001). The results of our research show that after the analysis regarding the production capacity of corn silo hybrids, we can conclude that we can observe that do exist significant statistic differences between silo production obtained at Mikado hybrid (56 t.he -1 ) and Janett hybrid, that have obtained a production of 52 t.he -1 . In which regards hybrid PR34Y02, it have obtained a lower production than Mikado hybrid, but higher than Janett hybrid, and the production differences are not assured from statistical point of view.more abstract
corn, silo, production
RESEARCHES REGARDING THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF ALFALFA IN DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF FERTILIZATIONS, IN BATĂR CONDITIONS, BIHOR COUNTY pag. 120-124Irina MARIAN, Luminita COJOCARIU, Dacian LALESCU, Lavinia CĂLUŞERU, Adrian COJOCARIU, Cristian BOSTAN, Florin MARIAN
Alfalfa is a lot appreciated due to the multiple uses as fodder plant, having a great production capacity and a good perennity. Also is resistant at frost and drought, answering very well at watering. It has a great capacity of growth, and in exceptional culture conditions can be harvested of 5-6 times per year (Luminiţa Cojocariu, 2005). Alfalfa can be used as green fodder, hay, semihay, silo (in mixture with graminees) and at the preparation of combined forages. Also, alfalfa is a basic part of temporary meadows used by mowing (Dragomir N. and colab., 2005 ) . Alfalfa is forage with good quality and yield superior in the cold season because it can be transformed in hay. Alfalfa is a crop proper for organic fertilisation because it removes a great amount of nitrogen from soil and can diminish the high level of nitrites from the root area. Some researches realised in U.S. show that alfalfa yield can be improved applying manure in comparison with other fertilisation sources (Lory J.A., 2000; Herbert S.J. et Daliparthy J., 2001). The aim of this paper is to find the maximum production of this culture taking in consideration the fertilisation with chemical fertilisers in Batăr conditions, Bihor county. The research was carried out in the experimental fields that belong to the society SC Frevest SRL from Batăr locality, Bihor county, the experience being placed on a chernozem argiloiluvial soil. The experience is placed in accordance with the randomized blocks method, in three repetitions, a parcel surface is 45 m 2 . Sowing was made on October 05th 2010. In order to determine the production, the harvesting was done at 61th phenophase ( Beginning of flowering: 10% of flowers open) of alfalfa ( the extended BBCH-scale, general - U. Meier, 2001). After the analysis regarding the production capacity of alfalfa we can observe that exist differences statistically assured as beeing very significant, between alfalfa production obtained at N 50 P 50 K 50 fertilisation variant of 28,2 t.he -1 and N 50 P 50 K 50 + N 50 fertilisation variant that have obtained a production of 45 ,8 t.he -1 . The differences statistically assured as beeing very significant have been registered also between alfalfa production obtained at N 50 P 50 K 50 fertilisation variant of 28,2 t.he -1 and at N 50 P 50 K 50 + N 50 + N 50 fertilisation variant at which was obtained a production of 53,0 t.he -1 . Also, differences statistically assured as beeing significant have been registered between alfalfa production obtained at N 50 P 50 K 50 + N 50 fertilisation variant of 45,8 t.he -1 and N 50 P 50 K 50 + N 100 fertilisation variant at which have been obtained a production of 53,0 t.he -1 .more abstract
alfalfa, production, fertilisation, optimisation.
FORAGE CHICORY pag. 125-128Nicoleta MORARU, Neculai DRAGOMIR., I. PĂDEANU, Claudiu GHIOCEL
Chicory is a herbaceous, perennial, edible plant from the Genus Chicorium of the Family Asteraceae. In Romania, chicory is known mainly for its medicinal uses due to its high content of diuretic and laxative, hypoglycaemic, anti-thyroid and depurative substances. Its particular resistance to climate conditions, particularly prolonged droughts, and its high nutritive value have determined the introduction into cultivation of chicory in different fodder crop structures, particularly in moisture-deficit areas, where it is cultivated both in pure culture and in different temporary grassland mixtures. Chicory is a herbaceous, perennial, edible plant from the Genus Chicorium of the Family Asteraceae. It has been known ever since Ancient times: in Ancient Egypt, it was cultivated as a medicinal plant and was used to treat liver and bile, and kidney diseases. Nowadays, chicory root is a very popular coffee surrogate and its aerial parts are used in medicine and gastronomy (basal leaves, slightly bitter, are used in salads). Chicory is native from North Africa, Europe and Asia; it can be seen in different ecological areas, but it is spread mainly in grasslands and in haymaking fields, in uncultivated areas, from the plain area to the hill and mountain areas. In Romania, chicory is known mainly for its medicinal uses due to its high content of diuretic and laxative, hypoglycaemic, anti-thyroid and depurative substances. Though very frequent in the spontaneous flora, chicory is still very little known in Romania as a forage crop. Its particular resistance to climate conditions, particularly prolonged drought, and its high nutritive value (superior to other well-known fodder species such as alfalfa, cock’s foot, and clover) determined its introduction in different fodder crop structures, particularly in moist-deficit areas, where it is cultivated both in monoculture and in different temporary grassland mixtures. The last decades, the cultivation of forage chicory has spread to all Mediterranean countries as well as to New Zealand and Australia, U.S.A. and Canada, France, Italy, India, and China (SANDERSON et al., 2001).more abstract
chicory, drought, temporary grassland
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SHALLOW GROUNDWATERS FROM SAG, TIMIS COUNTY pag. 129-133Iulia Mihaela NANU, Isidora RADULOV
Water is an important factor in ecological balances and its pollution is a current problem with consequences more or less serious on the population. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. Some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world will be facing water-based vulnerability. A recent report suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%. Water plays an important role in the world economy as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of the fresh water used by humans goes to agriculture. By water pollution, we usually understand impairing the physical, chemical and biological characteristics, produced directly or indirectly by human activities, and that makes the waters to become unsuitable for normal use in the purposes for which such use was possible before interfering altering. In this paper we analyzed surface waters in order to determine its pollution degree. The main pollution factors in area are human agglomerations, industry and agriculture. Samples were taken in the village Sag, Timis county where agricultural pollution sources are considered most important. The parameters analyzed were pH, content of nitrates, nitrites, ammonia and heavy metals. Water samples analysis were made in the Soil Science laboratory from USAMVBT. pH was determined by potentiometric method, nitrates, nitrites and ammonia content by colorimetric method and heavy metals trough atomic absorption spectrometry. Exceeding the maximum limits in surface waters was determined for nitrate and ammonium. Heavy metal content has recorded values above limits.more abstract
nitrate, heavy metals, pollution, water
AUTUMN RAPESEED PRODUCTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DENSITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF S.C.D.A. LOVRIN IN 2011 pag. 134-137Corina RĂDUCAN, Valeriu TABĂRĂ
Rape culture is efficient only if the conditions for obtaining high seed production are satisfied. Rape seed contains 40-49% unsiccative oil with iodine index between 94-112. Rape is a good honey plant, offering early pick for bees. From one hectare of rapeseed it can be harvested up to 80-90 kg of honey. Rape production is strongly influenced by the technology used. Rape culture is effective in conditions which ensure optimum technological conditions for obtaining seed production and higher oil. Rape seed oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world, and overall it is the third most widely consumed vegetable oil in the world. The oil has many non-food uses, and often replaces non-renewable resources in products including industrial lubricants, biofuels, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks. The used agrofond was N 90 P 90 K 90 , the other technology elements are specific to the area. The experimental results were calculated and interpreted by specific methods of experimental technique. For research, several varieties and hybrids belonging to different companies were used: PAMELA variety (LG), EXOTIC and EXTEND hybrids (Monsanto) and PR46W14 hybrid (Pioneer). Analysis of average production achieved by varieties and hybrids under study, points out that there are small differences between them. In the bifactorial experience from S.C.D.A. Lovrin, in average favorable climatic conditions, on four rapeseed cultivars were obtained yields of over 3000 kg / ha, and even 3460 kg / ha at Extend hybrid. At all four cultivars tested, the yields are strongly influenced by sowing density. Best results are obtained in the range of 100-150 g.s./m² sowing density. At the sowing density of 100 g.s./m², increase production of 344 kg / ha is provided statistically as very significant. In the c limatic conditions of 2011, the highest yield is achieved at EXTEND hybrid, 3460 kg/ha . In terms of seeding density the best results are obtained by sowing rape at a density of 100 g.s./m², 3508 kg/ha .more abstract
rapeseed, sowing density, production, hybrid
RAPE OIL CONTENT AND PRODUCTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING DENSITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF S.C.D.A. LOVRIN IN 2011 pag. 138-143Corina RĂDUCAN, Valeriu TABĂRĂ
From the rape culture, of special interest are both seed production and especially the oil content and hence oil production. Rape seed oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1. If consumed, it also reduces Low-density lipoprotein and overall cholesterol levels, and as a significant source of the essential omega-3 fatty acid is associated with reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Rapeseed counts as hardly any other crop as the renewable resource par excellence. Rapeseed has been grown as an agricultural crop since the 16th century. As well as its use as a cooking oil, it is also used as an energy source, mainly in the production of biodiesel and as a raw material in the chemical industry. Erucic acid derived from rapeseed is processed to make surfactants, softeners, wetting agents and emulsifiers. The oil content of rapeseed is affected by the variety, location, stage of crop maturity and the weather conditions during the growing phase (temperature sum). Other important factors include harvest time, height of growth, lodging resistance and susceptibility to disease (phoma, sclerotinia). For research, several varieties and hybrids belonging to different companies were used: PAMELA variety (LG), EXOTIC and EXTEND hybrids (Monsanto) and PR46W14 hybrid (Pioneer). The used agrofond was N90P90K90, the other technology elements are specific to the area. The experimental results were calculated and interpreted by specific methods of experimental technique. Analysis of average production achieved by varieties and hybrids under study, points out that there are small differences between them. If the case of S.C.D.A. Lovrin experiment it was found that oil content varies from one cultivar to another. However, is strongly influenced by sowing density. In Extend and Exotic hybrids, oil content increases with density (maximum is at the of 200 gs/m²). At Pamela variety and PR46W14 hybrid, oil content in seeds is reduced with increasing sowing density from 50 to 200 gs/m². Oil production is closely linked to production and seed oil content.more abstract
rapeseed, sowing density, production, oil, hybrid
CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS PEDO PECICA NEAR THE VILLAGE, ARAD pag. 144-148Attila TOTH, Ştefan TURI, Pavel TURI, Anişoara DUMA – COPCEA
Pecica locality is situated on the plain Mures and has a very low relief. Pecica covers two distinct landforms: a low plain in Mureş Floodplain, and a higher plain, which stretches north and north-west, both very fertile. This work is based on the selective evaluation of literature data on fundamental aspects of general and specific capacity of agricultural land Pecica, Arad. For farmland assessment must be characterized within the village natural studied, identification and characterization of soils and calculation evaluation notes, determining employment suitability and land fertility classes. All types and subtypes identified in Mureş meadow soils are soils of steppe and meadow alluvial character . Thus the perimeter investigated are two well differentiated areas with soils as a result of different pedogenetic conditions. The 19. 000 ha arable belonging Pecica village consist of chernozem cambic chernozem typical they join. (Pecica Hall, Arad).more abstract
soil, land, favorability, evaluation notes, fertility classes.
CONSIDERATIONS ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS DIVERSITY, AND CONSERVATION WITHIN FOUR LOCATIONS ALONG THE RIVER MUREȘ pag. 149-153Daciana TURCUŞ, Iulia Natalia DĂRĂBAN
This study was conducted in four sites (each of 3x3 km) along the river Mureș in Arad dept. All plant (cormophytes) species were recorded in search of correlations with the land use categories. We consider 14 categories of land use. The total number of cormophyte species is 369, with vlues per location from 197 (Felnac) to 265 (Vladimirescu). The proportion of (semi-)natural ecosystems is not strongly correlated with a higher plant diversity, as well as the proportion of agricultural fields is not correlated with the number of weed species (variation from 57 to 79). There is no difference in the number of invasive species per location (variation from 12 to 16 species). Amorpha fruticosa is the most important (by occupied area) species. Further studies are needed in order to have a better estimation of agricultural practices influence on natural biodiversity and to increase the tenability of biodiversity management, especially within the Lunca Mureșului National Park.more abstract
plant diversity, agricultural landscape, invasive species, Arad, nature conservation.
EVOLUTION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF LAND PRODUCTIVITY FROM BANAT PLAIN IN 2011-2012 AGRICULTURAL YEAR pag. 154-160Adrian ŢĂRĂU, Valeriu TABĂRĂ, Daniel DICU
Research goal is to accumulate scientific data on development of components of agricultural land productivity, necessary to support of an methodology of their quality evaluation through a complex firm approach to physical and geographical conditions from Banat Plain. Research on ecometrical function of the main physical and chemical characteristics of soil have been taken by many scientists, in the country and abroad, since the beginning of last century and the German classification system was designed mainly based on soil texture in the so-called phase of its evolution (D. Teaci, 1980). As part of the soil, clay plays a role in the relations established between certain physical and chemical properties of soil and between them and the activities of organisms that inhabit it.The physical and chemical properties of soil samples (texture, pH, content of humus and NPK etc.), were analyzed in USAMVB-OSPA Timisoara Research Laboratory, after national norms and standards approved by the Standards Association from Romania (ASRO). Knowledge of these features of the soil are of special theoretical and practical importance. Theoretical, it provides to specialist the possibility to interpret the phenomena that occur in soil and to predict soil evolution in particular and the environment in general, in terms of present and future health, and practical because warns the physician as what measures should be taken to bring the soil in optimal conditions for growth and development of plants cultivated or wild. Importance, originality and timeliness of work is the need to protect the edaphic layer and environmental protection by: The accumulation of scientific data necessary to support technologies of consevative tillages and sustainable management of soil and water resources, Implementation of conservative tillages and sustainable management of physical, geographical and edaphic conditions from Banat Plain.more abstract
biovariety, cooperation, sustenability, monitoring.
EXPRESSION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AT FOURVARIETES OF MEDICAGO SATIVA UNDER SPECIFIC GROWING WESTERN PLAIN pag. 161-164FAUR F., HORABLAGA N. M., Adina HORABLAGA, COSTEA B.
The alfalfa yield for fodder is the result of interaction of the hereditary features of plants and the condition of vegetation. In our paper we present the study of some valuable provenances of alfalfa that could be extended in culture in Banat’s Plain. The average for the three years dry matter production ranged from 10.11 t / ha for Selena PB I and 14.14 t / ha at the origin F -64- 92. This difference of 4.03 t / ha of dry matter appears that the parted portions genotypes are based on their production potential , under certain climatic conditions.more abstract
alfalfa, green mass yield.
STUDY CONCERNING THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPECIES OENOTHERA BIENNIS L. IN THE BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA pag. 165-170Adina HORABLAGA, HORABLAGA N. M.
This paper present studies on the morphological and biological characteristics of the species Oenothera biennis L. in the biological system, in the western Romania (Timis and Bihor counties) in two areas: one in the plain and one in the hill. The species is important from medical point of view; people's interest in medicinal plants has increased greatly due to side effects of drugs obtained by chemical leading to serious complications. The research was conducted under specific conditions of sustainable agriculture and the influence of experimental factors on the morphological and biological characteristics. The purpose of the researches was to increase knowledge on the behavior of the morphological and biological features. The experiences were place in the period 2011-2012 and they followed: plant height, ramifications number/plant, capsules number/plant, 1000 grains weight. The seed was produced at the Department of Crop. The researches were made in two periods of seed: March and October. We used different doses of natural fertilizer (50kg a.s. N/ha, 100 kg a.s. N/ha, and 150 a.s. N/ha). It is due to mention that 170 a.s. N/ha is the maximum amount of organic nitrogen allowed by national and European law to be used in the organic cultures. Average height was significantly closer between the two seed periods; number of ramifications/plant was also about the same, with minor differences, number of capsules/plant was grown with organic nitrogen dose, so the number of capsules / plant was less influenced by sowing period. Sowing in spring (March) , late autumn (October), do not influence the level of significance grains 1000 grain weight.more abstract
ramification, capsules, height, 1000 grain weight, plant.
COMPARATIVE STADY OF PASTORAL VALUE OF SOME ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS L. POPULATIONS COLLECTED FROM WESTERN ROMANIA pag. 171-175N. M. HORABLAGA, Adina HORABLAGA, F. FAUR
Alopecurus pratensis L. is one the most valuable fodder plants , with a high adaptability , high digestibility expendability and also called for a proper green mass production . In caeasta work were analyzed populations from different geomorphological areas of Banat. Input characters were taken into account : production capacity , plant height , dry matter content and the crude protein . Average production Alopecurus pratensis L populations Varied between 21t and 24 t of biomass. Plant height is Another decisive in terms of the amount of biomass Produced. It ranges in height from 67 cm to populations Torontalului Plain up to the height of 105 cm common in populations Caransebesului Depression . The dry matter content is Another character Taken into Account When discussing about the value of forage plants . It has the Largest value in populations Originating from Torontalului Plain . Crude protein content is Directly proportional to the solids being the Maare Torontalului Plain populations of the Smallest populations and the content of the hill.more abstract
Alopecurus pratensis, pastoral value, chemical composition, biomass, crude protein content