THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TILLAGE PRACTICES AS THE IMPORTANT FACTOR OF MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY PUBLISHEDJozef SMATANA, Milan MACÁK, Eva DEMJANOVÁ
The field experiments was carried out over the period of 2007-2009 at the experimental farm Kalná nad Hronom in south-western Slovakia. The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of conventional and reduced tillage and management of organic matter on the soil physical characteristics . The winter wheat – maize – spring barley crop sequence was evaluated. The soil tillage treatments as follows: T1 - conventional mould board ploughing with farm yard manure (FYM) application to maize (on autumn 2007) and incorporation of post harvested residues of spring barley, winter wheat and maize; T2 - conventional mould board ploughing; T3-no-till Horsch CONCORD CO 9. During June soil samples were taken from 0.05 - 0.10 m, 0.10 - 0.20 m, 0.20 - 0.30 m. Total porosity, soil bulk density and soil moisture was evaluated. The differences between variants of tillage, soil layer and crops growing in different years were ascertained. Evaluated tillage treatments have statistical influence on total porosity and soil bulk density in an average of three years. No till treatment (T3) influenced the less infiltration rate of soil profile with comparison only to mouldboard ploughing treatment+ incorporation of post harvest residues of spring barley, maize and winter wheat . The soil bulk density was highly significantly influenced by weather condition, growing crops, residue management, of used tillage systems and by soil layer . Total porosity range from 37.43 – 56.89% and Soil bulk density range from 1.095 - 1.583 t m 3 , in an average. Average data of total porosity revealed the significant less total porosity in deeper soil layer 0.2 - 0.3 m (40.75%) with comparison to top layer 0.05 - 0.10 m (44.91%). Significantly less total porosity was created under canopy of maize (40.73%) and later on under spring barley (41.92%) with comparison to winter wheat (45.12%). Averaged three year results, the conventional mould board ploughing with farm yard manure plus incorporation of post harvest residues of spring barley, maize and winter wheat, form the most suitable soil environment (soil bulk density, total porosity and soil humidity retention), but we also recommended no-till for this specific area of Slovak region.
conventional tillage, no-till, soil bulk density, total porosity, soil moisture, crop rotation