IMPACT OF MINIMUM TILLAGE ON SOIL PHYSICAL FEATURES IN THE CONDITIONS FO THE DIDACTIC STATION IN TIMIŞOARA PUBLISHEDLorin Piloca, Aurel Lăzureanu
In this paper we present the impact of the maize cultivation method on the soil physical features. We used two soil working systems: the classical system and the non-conventional system (conservative). The experiments were carried out in the soil and climate conditions of the Banat Plain at the Didactic Station of the Banat University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine in Timişoara (Timiş County, Romania), between 2006 and 2008. Research started from the soil working in classical system (tillage) considered control variant, which we compared with the different new systems of soil working (non-conventional system) using minimum tillage variants. The description of the soil profile was done according to the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS – 2003). The soil profile ahs the following horizon succession: Ap - Ap - Amk - A/Cyk - CykGo - CCaGo - CcaG - CcaG 0 - CcaGr. The experimental device for the study of the impact of minimum tillage system on the soil physical features was organised under the form of stationary experiment with the following variants: V 1 – control – tillage with mould plough + discing with disc harrow; V 2 – harrowing with heavy disc harrow – 2 passages; V 3 – harrowing with a combined rotary harrow – 2 passages; V 4 – harrowing with heavy disc harrow + harrowing with a combined rotary harrow; V 5 – chisel + harrowing with a combined rotary harrow; V 6 – cultivator + harrowing with a combined rotary harrow. Experimental variants were tested in three replications each of which occupying an area of S = 15 x 20 = 300 m 2 . The values of apparent density within the layer 0-10 cm for the measurements made during the sprouting of the maize – 1.18 g/cm 3 in the variant cultivated in the classical system (control) and 1.25 g/cm 3 in the variant V 5 confirm the moderate aeration of the soil. Total porosity, in agreement with apparent density, has higher values within the layer 0-10 cm (as a result of germination bed preparation works) decreasing with the depth in all the phenol-phases during which we made measurements. The values of the setting degree measured within 0-30 cm depending on the type of soil work and on the period of the measurement show an increase of the setting degree from sprouting to harvesting.
classical system (tillage); minimum tillage; soil physical features