THE INFLUENCE OF SEVERAL FIELD CROPS ON SOIL NUTRIENT LOSSES WITHIN HILLY ZONE OF MOLDAVIA PUBLISHEDMihai SUSINSKI, Ana Maria DODOCIOIU, Marian DOBRE, Eugen FILICHE, R. MOCANU
Within the hilly zone of Moldavia, on sloppy soils, the erosion phenomenon determines the loss of nutrient and humus along with the runoff water. Through thoroughly experiments in a special experimental field with different crops and plots for determining the volume of the runoff water in covered basins there was researched the influence of several crops on nutrient losses from soil on a period of 16 years (1995-2010). The experimental plots have been worked conventionally as regard soil tillages, being cropped by: corn, winter wheat, bromus, bean, soybean, according with crop rotation principles. On the basis of water volume that was collected and its turbidity there were estimated the liquid and solid losses per hectare. From these researches there resulted that with cereal crops there is lost the lowest quantity of nutrients from the soil. This way, in comparison the control fallow treatment plot, with wide row crops (corn, soybean, bean) these losses have been of 13.07 – 28.65% while with cereals (bromus, winter wheat) they only reach 7.15%. As compared with the corn crop plot, these losses are of maximum 22.5% with cereals and of 66.4-89.9% with soybean and 3-5 times higher with the fallow control plot. In conclusion, good protective crops as regard the erosion are bromus and winter wheat; they reduce the impact of the rain drops upon the soil and reduce the possibility to disrupt and transport the soil particles. This way, a higher quantity of water enters into the soil and the nutrient and soil losses are much reduced as compared with fallow or corn.The most sensitive crops as regard nutrients are wide row crops and the most resistant, the cereals. The soil kept as permanent fallow records the highest transformations of the chemical features by losing nutrients. The developing status of the crops has an important role as regard the soil losses, water and nutrients. There is recommended to crop bromus on the slope protective strips.
slope, nutrient losses, nitrogen, humus, potassium, cereals, corn