FACTORS AND DEGRADATION PROCESSES OF SOILS IN THE MIDDLE BASIN OF THE BEGA RIVER PUBLISHEDLoredana COPĂCEAN, Iacob BORZA
Fertility, one of the fundamental characteristics of a soil, has developed over time along with the soils formation and evolution. A number of factors act upon the fertility, limiting and/or degradation processes represented by some soil characteristics and/or environmental factors that lead to its diminishment thus reducing the production capacity of such lands. Conservation of soil fertility implies identifying the limiting factors and the degradation processes, determining their degree of intensity and land area affected. Identification of soil units in the middle basin of the river Bega was based on existing data and Agrochemical Soil Survey Office. Because soil studies are developed by administrative territories, for the purpose of obtaining an overall situation of the middle basin of the river Bega, all types of soil surfaces, within their respective territories, were summarized. Limiting factors and degradation processes, specific to each soil unit, were later determined for the entire region, an area of 49522.37 ha. Very different physical and geographical conditions of the area studied, determined the formation of a complex range of soils, belonging to 6 classes and 13 types of soils. Bega River Middle Basin overlaps the hills area, typical of this area are luvisols (59.43%), hidrisols (10.22%), protisols (8.32%), on other not so extended areas there are cambisols, antrisols and pelisols. On the soils mentioned are acting one or more limiting factors of agricultural production: small reserves of humus, soil reaction, compactness, reduced edaphic useful volume, soil hardness, slope, surface and deep erosion, landslides, land covering (with rocks and boulders) and terrain (land) uniformity, excessive surface humidity and excessive phreatic humidity, each affecting differently the varying soil units. This paper presents the areas affected by each limiting factor relative to the total agricultural area, mentioning that a unit of soil is generally affected by the simultaneous action of several limiting factors and/or degradation processes.
environment, fertility, limitations, productivity, quality