BAKING QUALITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVATED IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS PUBLISHEDNora SMATANOVÁ, Magdaléna LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ
Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) direct baking quality was evaluated in the year 2009. Winter wheat was cultivated in ecological (ES) and integrated (IS) farming system with two levels of fertilizing. Farming systems were established at Research Base Dolná Malanta in Western Slovakia region on brown clay-loamy soil. The experimental field altitude was 178 m, average precipitations is 561 mm and average temperature 19.7 °C in July and - 1.7 °C in January. The ecological system was composed of a six course crop rotation: beans + alfalfa – alfalfa – winter wheat – peas – maize – spring barley. The integrated system consisted of the crop rotation: winter wheat – peas – winter wheat – maize – spring barley – lucerne (3 years at the same plot). Subplots are fertilized (F) and unfertilized (N). The F variant in ES was based on 40 t of manure, the IS also recieved 40 t of manure plus synthetic fertilizers. The aim of this work was to evaluate parameters of baked bread loaves obtained after baking test in laboratory which gives possibility to the most comprehensive assesment of technological properties and flour quality. Baking test was realised according to ICC Standard No. 131 from white wheat flour. Qualitative parameters of baked loaves included: bread volume and height/width ratio, specific volume and bulk productivity, product yield and baking loss. Evaluated paramateres of baked loaves from one-year research were statistically significant affected by crop nutrition. Application of manure had positive effect on each evaluated paramater, except bread yield and baking loss. Fertilizing in ecological system increased bread volume and bulk productivity about 3 – 3.3 %. In ecological unfertilised variant was found improvement of height/width ratio, specific volume, bread yield and baking loss about 0.6 – 3.9 %. Manure plus synthetic fertilizers in IS caused improvement of baking parameters equal to 9.4 – 12.5 %. Ecological farming system had in the 2009 possitive effect on direct baking quality of winter wheat. Reached results from direct baking test confirmed that quality of winter wheat white flour from ecological farming system was not statistically different from integrated one.
winter wheat, ecological system, baking quality