ON THE IMPACT OF SOIL TYPE AND OF TECHNOLOGICAL WORKS ON MAIZE YIELD AT COLUMIROM S.R.L. PUBLISHEDLaurenţiu Sarcină, Lucian Botoş
Maize is the most surprising system of nature accumulating energy. A seed weighing around 1/3 of a gram sprouts and produces in about 9 weeks a plant 2-3 m tall, producing, in the following 8 weeks, 600-1,000 grains. The explanation of this process is firstly, that maize is an extraordinary laboratory turning solar energy into organic matter and, secondly, that it stores a large amount of energy into a very concentrated produce – the maize grain. In this study, we monitored the way in which the soil type and fertilisation impact yield level. Nitrogen plays a pivotal role in several physiological processes inside the plant. It is fundamental to establish the plant's photosynthetic capacity (Hageman & Below, 1984); it prolongs the effective leaf area duration, delaying senescence (Earl & Tollenaar, 1997); it is important for ear and kernel initiation, contributing to define maize sink capacity (Tollenaar et al., 1994); and it helps to maintain functional kernels throughout grain filling, influencing the number of developed kernels and kernel final size (Huber etal., 1994; Jones et al., 1996). Research was carried out over three years (2007-2009) at the Columirom S.R.L. Company (Comloşu Mare, Timis County) and it is the basis of the author’s Graduation Diploma Paper. In the soil and climate conditions at Comloşu Mare, maize crops can rely on all the factors allowing high yields in several maturity hybrid groups. Results show the impact of soil type and of cultivation technology on yield (particularly the fertilisation level, the quality of the seeding material, and the soil working system). Numerous field trials around the world have shown that, with fertilization according to crop requirement and site-specific conditions, substantial yield increases can be achieved. Balanced fertilization is important for crop yield, quality and stress resistance The study was acknowledged by the management of the Columirom S.R.L. Company who financed the study and whom I thank for their kindness, support, and professional counselling.
maize; cultivation technology; soil type