FERTILITY LEVEL OF SOILS IN HUNGARY – ROMANIAN BORDER AREA PUBLISHEDIsidora RADULOV, L. NITA, Adina BERBECEA, D. TARAU, Cs. VODGVOLDGY, I. LATO, D. DICU, Clara TUDOR
The most important property of soil is to be living environment for plants and to make itpossible for crops to yield. He has the ability to ensure plant`s growth and fruiting. This is because of theessential quality of soil to be a physical, chemical and biological dynamic environment, giving a set ofnecessary conditions for growth and development of natural and cultivated vegetation. Soil is the mostfavorable support for plant root development, a source of nutrients and water. Because soil is a muchmore complex system than air and water, pollution is affecting its properties, including the level offertility. In addition, pollutants in soil can pass into plants, water or air, and remediation is a difficultprocess, sometimes untenable. The aim of this paper is to determine fertility level of soil on both sides ofHungary- Romanian border. 10-10 HU-RO test sites were selected. Seven test sites include wheat fieldswith intensive cultivation, while 1 site was selected from an organic wheat cultivation field. Test sitesincluding a pasture field and a forest were included as controls. Samples were taken according to the soilsampling guidelines, on two depths: 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Analized parameters were: pH-ul, carbonatecontent, humus content, available phosphorus and potassium. All analysis methods were according toISO standards. Soil pH is probably the most commonly measured soil chemical property and is also oneof the more informative. Soil pH has a profound influence on plant growth. Compared with soils inHungary, where the pH is uniform, slightly alkaline, soils in Romania have pH values contained in amuch wider area. Humus is a colloidal substance, and increases the soil's cation exchange capacity,hence its ability to store nutrients by chelating. Most soils in Hungary, humus content between 2 -4%,which means a reduced supply. Phosphorus (P) is a naturally occurring element that exists in minerals,soil, living organisms and water. Phosphorus is essential for early root development and hastens plantmaturity. In terms of soil phosphorus content is observed in Hungary a good and very good supply in thismain macronutrient. Phosphorus content of soils in Romania is very varied, ranging between 5 and 150ppm. Available soil potassium supply in both countries range from low to very good. In Hungary, thelargest quantities of potassium were determined on soils rich in organic matter.
fertility, soil, humus, fertilizers, crops