RESISTANCE REACTION OF SOME WINTER WHEAT GENOTIPES TO THE ATTACK OFF FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM L. SCHW. IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BANAT PLAIN PUBLISHEDOtilia COTUNA, Veronica SĂRĂŢEANU, Carmen DURĂU, Mirela PARASCHIVU, Gabriela RUSALIN
Fusarium graminearum Schw. is responsible for the occurrence of the fusarium disease that isunique due to its capacity of plants infection in all the vegetation stages. The economic importance of thedisease is determined by the fact that the fungus is producing some dangerous mycotoxins that arecontaminating the food and feed products, these substances being heat-proof. The fungus is affecting alsothe wheat yield from quantitative and qualitative point of view.The climatic conditions from the last yearshave been favourable for the development of the Fusarium graminearum pathogen; the disease waspresent in the wheat crops with different attack frequencies and intensities. In this research was analysedthe response of some winter wheat varieties originated from Romania, Austria, France and Hungary tothe attack of Fusarium graminearum having the purpose to set the resistance reaction. The 16 winterwheat varieties from the experimental field have reacted different to the Fusarium graminearum attack.Resistance reaction manifested by these varieties in 2012 year was set by a quantitative assessingmethod. The quantitative assessing methods have at the background the setting of the virulence of thepathogen.Thus, the attack frequency (F%) has varied between 2.063% and 15.206% and intensity (I%) orvirulence of the pathogen at kernel was comprised between the relative values 16.666% and 73.666%,after Miedaner (1986) scale. The resistance of the varieties to the attack of Fusarium graminearum isvariable and in general is influenced by the climatic conditions. There isn’t any variety resistant tofusarium. In the climatic conditions of 2010, the analysed genotypes have manifested a variableresistance reaction, framing it in five reaction classes: medium resistant – MR (varieties Josef, Soissons,Glosa, Arlequin, Karolinum, Petur and Feny, sensitive – S (varietie Rusija), very sensitive (varietiesAndalou, Azimut – control,and Kalango), reduce sensitive (varieties Apache and Beches) and resistant(varieties Dropia, Antonius and Renan). The infection with Fusarium graminearum in the experimentalfield was natural. The variance analysis show that the differences in comparison with control varietyAzimut (highly sensitive to fusariose) are insignificant in most of the monitored genotypes in 2010, in theconditions that Azimut control variety was the most attacked from the comparative plots. Only the varietyDropia and Antonius have registered negative significant differences in comparison with the control. Inthe variety Dropia the fungus has showed the lowest attack frequency and intensity (F% = 2.063% andI% / 16.666%).
genotypes, wheat, resistance, Fusarium, virulence, intensity.