PRESENT-DAY CONDITION AND CONSERVATION OF SPONTANEOUS ORCHIDS POPULATIONS WHITIN THE CHEILE NEREI-BEUșNIțA NATIONAL PARK (S-W ROMANIA) PUBLISHEDBÂTEA, N.-D., NICOLIN, A.-L., ARSENE, G.-G., IMBREA, I.-M., NEACȘU, A.-G.
In the Romanian flora there are 58 species from Orchidaceae, whereof 33 species are mentioned by some authors as growing in the Cheile Nerei-Beușnița National Park. Orchids are seldom part of red lists; within Romanian red lists there are mentioned almost all species (OLTEANU et al., 1994), 18 species (DIHORU & DIHORU, 1994), or 10 species (DIHORU & NEGREAN, 2009). The red list of Carpathian Region (WITKOWSKI et al., 2003) contains 18 orchids species. There are few studies on orchids in the Cheile Nerei-Beușnița, focussed mainly on chorological aspects. Our field research was conducted from 2010 to 2013, during the flowering periods; we recorded the spatial distribution of populations, populations size, and the type of threats / pressures. The populations found belongs to 12 species: Himantoglossum caprinum (M.Bieb.) Spreng. (H. hircinum (L.) Spreng subsp. caprinum (M.Bieb.) K. Richt = H. jankae Somlyay, Kreutz & Óvári, according to MOLNÁR et al., 2012), species from the Annex II (92/43/EEC Directive), Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw., Orchis pallens L., Epipactis microphylla (Ehrh.) Swartz, Neottia nidus – avis (L.) L. C. M. Richard, Listera ovata (L.) R. Br., Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. Rich, Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce, Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br., Epipactis helleborine (L.) Cr. Stirp., Orchis mascula (L.) L., Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. The habitats (in old biogeographical sense, non sensu Natura 2000) of most populations are forests dominated by beech, some of species beeing meadows-restricted ones. As threats, in forest habitats, we identified: the proliferation of shrub layer, vandalism, illegal logging, and accidental fires. In meadows, detrimental factors are the the overgrazing or the abandon of grazing, the abandon of mowing and fires. Immediate simple management measures are advisable, as the diminution of shading by shrub des-encroachment, that could significantly improve the germination of Orchis mascula population in the Ciclova Valley. Giving the vulnerability of many species to natural succession, as well as to severe climatic variation, a system of monitoring orchids population should be established. The conservation status of most orchids in the National Park is unadequate and the size in populations is far from beeing a liability of their continuance.
Orchidaceae, Himantoglossum, Cheile Nerei-Beușnița, conservation