YIELD FORMATION OF COMMON PEAS AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE PUBLISHEDEva CANDRÁKOVÁ1, Marta ANDREJČÍKOVÁ2, Eva HANÁČKOVÁ1
During 2010-2012, the field trial of pea variety Xantos was established on Experimental site of SAU in Nitra (E 18º09', N 48º19') with altitude of 175 m. The location has continental warm and moderate arid climate with an average annual temperature of 9.07°C an average annual precipitation of 561 mm. The mean temperature during the growing season is 16.2°C. The soil type is Orthic Luvisol with a loamy texture, medium humus content of 1.95% - 2.60% and a pH of 5.7. The tested variety is medium early, semileafless type, with good plasticity to soil and climate condition. Three fertilization treatments as follows: 0-without organic and inorganic fertilization. PH – mineral fertilizers calculated to the 4 t yield level. PR- incorporation of all above-ground plant material of forecrop supplemented with mineral fertilizer to the balance equilibrium level. Common pea (Pisum sativum L.) was growing after maize. In autumn, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied. In spring, 20 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen as a starting dose was applied. The influence of mineral fertilization and green manure treatments on creation of yield component, yield of seeds and yield of pea straw was evaluated. Year condition of evaluated years differ significantly mainly in precipitation pattern. In 2012, the warmest (+1.5 °C above LTA) dry condition (87.8 °C of LTA) was noted. The wettest year was 2010 (61% above LTA). In 2011, the most suitable wheatear conditions were determined. The yield of pea was highly significantly influenced by year conditions and significantly by mineral fertilization treatments. The highest seed yield (2.11 t ha-1) and straw (4.04 t ha-1) was reached in 2011. The lowest yield of pea seeds (1.03 t ha-1) and straw (1.79 t ha-1) was noted in 2012. The close relationship between biomass production and fertilization and forecrop residues incorporation was determined (r=0.9592+++). The highest nitrogen uptake was in 2011 (65.14 kg ha-1) on mineral fertilization treatment with incorporation of forecrop aboveground biomass of maize. The phosphorus and potassium uptake was the highest in wet year (2010) also on mineral fertilization treatment with incorporation of forecrop aboveground biomass of maize. The lowest uptake of P and K was on the control treatments. The lowest total nutrient uptake was in 2012 due to lack of soil moisture and high temperature, thereby was limited function of the root system.
common pea, harvest residues, fertilization, nutrient, yield