STUDY REGARDING THE REACTION OF SOME MAIZE HYBRIDS FROM ITALY TO THE ATTACK OF THE FUNGI USTILAGO ZEAE (BECKM) AND HELMINTHOSPORIUM TURCICUM PASS. IN THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS FROM BANAT’S PLAIN PUBLISHEDOtilia COTUNA1, Mirela PARASCHIVU2, Veronica SĂRĂŢEANU1, Carmen DURĂU1, A. BORCEAN None firstname.lastname@example.org
In the western side of Romania appear every year in the maize crops the fungi Ustilago zeae and Helminthosporium turcicum, but the obvious harvest loses appear in the years when are present the optimal limits, the trophic and climatic demands of the pathogen. The objective of this research was the testing of nine maize hybrids original from Italy from the point of view of the reaction to the attack of the pathogens specific in natural infection conditions. The experimental field was placed in the perimeter of the Didactic Station of Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “King Michael I of Romania” from Timisoara. The hybrids were observed during the entire vegetation period in 2015. The nine hybrids with SIS provenance have been tested for the first time in the conditions of Banat’s Plain. The response of the hybrids to the attack of the two above mentioned pathogens was set by analysing the field data on the resistance source scale and on the cultural scale. In the case of fungus Helminthosporium turcicum six hybrids from the experience were showed sensitivity to the pathogen (Kimbos 500, Kampius 480, Pico 450, Sunsis 420, Kabrios 380 and AGN 340) and three hybrids manifested tolerant reaction (Sistema 580, Cristina 600 şi Kalmus 600 – late hibrids). There was noticed in the late hybrids that the virulence is lower comparative with intermediate and ultra early hybrids. According with the cultural scale, less exigent, the hybrids Kimbos 600 and Kampius 480 are maintaining as sensitive and the others are medium resistant to the pathogen. In the climatic conditions of the year 2015 seven hybrids from experience have manifested resistance reaction to the attack of the pathogen Ustilago zeae, respectively Kalmus 600 (130 days), Sistema 580 (180 days), Cristina 600 and Kimbos 500 (125 days), Kampius 480 (123 days), Pico 450 (120 days), Sunsis 420 (120 days) and the hybrids Kabrios 380 and AGN 340 have manifested sensitivity reaction. In general the tested hybrids have tolerated well the pathogen, the obtained results being in accordance with the production company results. The good tolerance to the attack of the pathogens, even excellent in the case of some hybrids, the vegetative vigour and the tolerance to the water stress make possible their successful cultivation in non-irrigated systems and even on soils with lower soil fertility.
Ustilago zeae, Helminthosporium turcicum, hybrids, fungi, reaction, common smut, maize
field crops and pastures