THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC AND SOIL CONDITIONS ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLUM TREES AND ON THE YIELD LEVELS ON A TYPICAL LUVOSOL AT CARANSEBES - CARAS SEVERIN COUNTY PUBLISHEDRodica LAZĂR, C. LAZĂR, Daniela RĂDUCU, C. MARINCA
Soil is an essential component in orchard ecosystems. For a fruit tree performance the soil is and will remain in the future, the unique place for growth and development of root system, while providing mineral elements with an essential role in nutrition of fruit trees. The paper presents an integrated and operational set of measurable criteria and indicators as a basis for a harmonized comprehensive information system used for achieving an intelligent infrastructure to create an ecologic quantified and integrated model of the climate, land and infrastructure resources, specific to fruit-trees lands and orchards. The objectives were to emphasize the monitorisation of the climatic conditions, soil fertility and biometrical measurements in some of the studied areas, in order to supplement the database. It is unanimously admitted that from all the relevant scientific indicators for fruit-tree cultivation, the thermic conditions in the air have a basic role. In this context, to highlight the climate of the area it was used a method based on the frequency of repetitiveness of thresholds and optimal climatic intervals in the last ten years. The paper, also, presents a relatively complex soil characterization, of the orchard from Research and Development Station for Fruit Tree Growing Caransebeş. For a thorough understanding of soil conditions in Caransebes orchard has been studied the typical luvosol characteristic of the territory. That soil texture is loamy-silty loam. Soil reaction is moderately acid to surface and slightly acid on the soil profile. Total cation exchange capacity is low, increasing from surface to the Bt horizon. The degree of base saturation is oligomesobasic - mesobasic. Analytical data have revealed, generally, low and very low content of organic matter and macro-elements (N, P, K) and micro-elements (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) supply condition is good. The influence of soil conditions on trees trunk thickness is synthesized in indicators for roots and trunk biometry. For production structure of plum fruits in Caransebes orchard , were studied three cultivars: Stanley, Vânăt de Italia and Vânăt Românesc. The main mass of roots of plum trees, although is located at 20-60 cm depth, can explore the soil profile ( ³ 100 cm) and have no significant restrictions in this regard.
plum orchard, expert system, climatic and soil conditions