CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF GRASSLAND PHYTO-COENOSES IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE TIMIS RIVER BASIN ON FORAGE AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION (BANAT, ROMANIA) PUBLISHEDTeodor MARUȘCA, Alma L. NICOLIN None email@example.com
The assessment of forage production on permanent grassland phyto-coenoses based on floristic sampling outlines an economic indicator necessary to establish optimal animal loading. The present paper is a case study for the upper and middle basin of the Timiş River in Banat (Romania), which, on an altitudinal gauge of 100-2,190 m, presents 347 surveys of 27 associations belonging to 15 phyto-sociological alliances from the Semenic, Țarcu-Godeanu and Poiana Ruscă Mountains to the Lugoj Plain. In order to assess production, the grasslands were divided into three main physical and geographical categories, namely: sub-alpine and mountain meadows with an average production of 3.2 t/ha useful phyto-mass (feed), hill and plain meadows with a production of 6.6 t/ha and flooding meadows, terraces and depressions with a production of 11.4 t/ha green forage. The most valuable grasslands used by grazing with animals (Al. Cynosurion and Agrostion stoloniferae) can produce 11.7 to 13.8 t/ha green forage which can provide 146-230 kg/ha live weight increase in bovine and sheep youth in the optimal grazing season. The meadows used as a haymaking fields (Arrhenetheretum elatioris, Ahopecuretum pratensis, Festucetum pratensis) provide very good productions of 16.8-19.0 t/ha green forage. Several phyto-coenoses located in the sub-alpine floor, those invaded by Nardus stricta and Vaccinium sp. in the mountain area or those located on land with permanent excess moisture achieve only 0.3-1.3 t/ha green forage, being considered economically degraded. As a conclusion, the live weight gain of young animals in the grazing season ranges from 20 to almost 200 kg/ha depending on the production of green forage/ha, making it a good start to the practice of organic farming under the conditions of proper management. Knowledge of the production of grassland forage is extremely useful for drawing up pastoral facilities, preserving biodiversity in the protection of the environment and pastoral landscapes.
grassland phyto-coenoses, green forage production, animal weight increase
field crops and pastures