IMPACT OF FERTILISATION ON BREAD-MAKING QUALITY IN SOME NATIVE WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES IN THE SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF THE DEVA - ORĂŞTIE AREA (THE MUREŞULUI RIVER FLOODING PLAIN) PUBLISHEDNadina Fugaciu, Valeriu Tabără
The agriculture of the future must be durable and competitive, which can be achieved through the correct application of the technological processes specific to agricultural crops. The paper presents the outcomes of the research carried out between 2008 – 2009 in the Orastie – Deva area (The Mures Valley), focusing on the influence of fertilization upon the wheat’s bread manufacture quality. The experiment emphasized the influence of fertilization in different doses of azoth, phosphorus and potassium upon the physical and chemical factors: HM, the protein content, the moist gluten content and starch.Wheat is one of the agricultural plants which positively react to the application of fertilizers in all climatic changes in Romania. The experiments carried out until now have emphasized this plant’s capacity to capitalize the organic and mineral fertilizers economically. The paper refers to the physical and chemical indicators that depend on the soil’s fertility and on the soil and climatic factors. Wheat is the main cereal in people’s nourishment, the bread manufacture quality being its most important feature. The bread manufacture characteristics depend on the protein and gluten content of the wheat berry, which is influenced by the doses of azoth, phosphorus and potassium.The method we used was related to four agri-funds: b1 – N0 P0 K0; b2 – N60 P60 K60; b3 – N90 P90 K90; b4 – N120 P120 K120. The research proved the increase of the protein and gluten content in the case of the wheat fertilized with bigger azoth, phosphorus and potassium doses, the b4 – N120 P120 K120 agri-fund respectively.For soils in Romania the azoth remains the main mineral element which influences the wheat’s bread manufacture capacity. Moreover, the increase in quantity and quality of the gluten in the fertilization with significant does of azoth, phosphorus and potassium has been emphasized. For bread manufacture, the content in gluten and the quality of the proteins determine the hydrating capacity of flour and the quality of the bakery products. The balanced fertilization of the wheat crop ensures the development of the plants. The ratio between the azoth, phosphorus and potassium is generally in favour of the azoth, which has a greater solubility in the soil and thus can be applied in several stages. The azoth, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers derived from NPK complex fertilizers. Used in the right proportion, the azoth ensures the good rooting of the plants increases the resistance to low temperatures and improves the content of the wheat berries in protean substances. The phosphorus influences positively the rooting, the resistance to the cold of the winter, the resistance to falling and increases the efficiency of the azoth. The potassium favours the synthesis of the carbon hydrates and contributes to the resistance of the plants. The hectolitric mass has been correlated positively with the protein content. The bread manufacture features and the hectolitric mass (HM) are influenced by the cultivated soil, the climatic conditions and technology applied.
wheat; protein content; gluten content; variety; fertilization