Liliana Panaitescu, Marius Lungu, Simona Niţă, Anca Nicoleta Albu, Georgeta Beleniuc
In the crop structure of Dobrogea, wheat occupies a percentage between 23 and 33%, depending on the economical factors, but also on the climatic ones. In the years with climatic risks, the percentage of wheat in the crop structure decreases. This drop is maintained the following year as well. The production is greatly influenced by the low precipitations fallen that particular year, both throughout the year but especially over the vegetation period of wheat. Temperature is another risk factor that influences wheat culture in Dobrogea. The scorchers occurred during certain vegetation periods of wheat, associated with atmospheric drought and soil dryness, influence negatively the formation of the productivity elements and finally lead to important production decreases. The paper presents the results of researches regarding the behavior of certain wheat types on chernozem soil in the conditions of the Dobrogea Plateau. The paper also makes proposals regarding the choice of a version of cultivation technology in order to control the negative effects of the biotic and abiotic factors on the autumn wheat production in Dobrogea. It also presents the results obtained regarding the harvest structure for the studied wheat types. Knowing that, in Dobrogea’s specific climatic conditions, too early or too late sowing causes problems in wheat culture which lead to important harvest losses, the influence of the sowing time on the production of the studied types was researched. Because of the small quantity of precipitations falling in Dobrogea and their non-uniform distribution over the wheat vegetation period, irrigation must be applied as a measure to increase the production. Not respecting certain technological elements such as fitting sowing within the optimum period, cultivating wheat after good previous plants, good soil tilling on time or the use of chemical fertilizers also lead to important production decreases. This paper refers to the fact that the manifestation of the productive potential of one type of wheat is connected to the genetic factor, but also to the other vegetation factors and the applied technology. We attempted to study the behavior of certain Romanian and foreign autumn wheat types which exist in the official catalogue of types and hybrids of cultivated plants in Romania, some older in crops, other newly introduced in the crop structure of Dobrogea.
wheat; agroclimatic condition; productive potential
Presentation: oral