Adalbert OKROS, Casiana MIHUŢ, Lucian Dumitru NIŢĂ
The object of mapping, bonitation and evaluation is the soil (the ground), the thinnest and most fragile layer of Terra. It is studied in relation to the environmental factors and conditions that influence its existence, and together with them, it forms units (habitats, biotypes, homogenous ecological territories, stations and ecosystems). Each of these units presents specific favourability for the development of different agrarian or natural phytocenoses, with specific aptitudes for being used in agriculture, forestry or in other domains. Soil mapping comprises all the observations, studies and research in the field, laboratory and office. It engulfs operations of systematic examination, identification and morphological, physical, chemical, hydro-physical and biological characterization of the soil. The aim of these operations is to use the soil as the basis for vegetal production, as material in constructions, as rural or urban space for social, economic, cultural or recreational enterprises; another aim is to draw pedological maps, as well as correlative maps (lithological, hydrological, geo-morphological, etc). The action of assessment and evaluation of the so-called quality of land resources is as old as the human activity of living off the land, i.e. on-land production of goods necessary for living. This operation of learning about the soil is made through soil mapping. Choosing the “right” place or “matching” the place with certain uses was the first concern of the agricultural man (after the stage of itinerant agriculture); this skill was learnt intuitively and passed over from generation to generation. Detailed knowledge of the current technological and productive characteristics of each plot of land is very important, as are the possibilities of changing these characteristics for the better. In this way, agricultural producers, as well as the decision-taking institutions of the state, have a useful tool for putting into practice the technical procedures for social and economic measures that will eventually lead to complete and efficient use of land resources.
Presentation: oral