INFLUENCE OF CONSERVATION AND CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE IN COST OF LABOR WITH FARM MACHINES IN ALBANIAN CONDITIONS PUBLISHEDEtleva Jojiç, Pirro Veizi, Fatbardh Sallaku, Astrit Frakulla, Nazmi Bajrami
The basic agricultural production unit in the country is the agricultural farms. They were established right after the privatization and distribution process of land. This in turn was accompanied by profound economic, social, legal and institutional problems. At the close of such a process a huge number of farms were created in proportionate compliance with the population in a certain rural area and the land made available from the former state farms and cooperatives. The size of the farms depended to a large degree on the number of the family members benefiting from land distribution as well. Soil tillage is, and will remain, the guiding component of soil management and consequently has far-reaching implications for agroecosystems. Understanding structures and functions of soil ecosystems under different tillage/no tillage practices is an essential requirement for any future farming concepts. Using the knowledge of soil ecology under natural, undisturbed conditions, the paper is focused on how cultivation affects soil and the soil environment. In particular it highlights how methods of soil tillage can influence soil structure, soil chemical processes, soil borne pathogens, and pest species. Covering the aspects of soil tillage on different soil types, the paper concludes with a synthesis of the role of soil tillage in securing a sustainable agricultural environment. Soil tillage in agro-ecosystems offers a broad and comprehensive view of the interrelations of multifaceted tillage practices and the biological, chemical, and physical components of soil ecosystems. Tillage effects are highlighted within the context of the whole farming system, so as to provide the scientific basis for choosing different tillage options in order to achieve the best possible sustainable base for long-lasting agricultural production. The goal of this study is to analyze the influence of different systems of land utilization in energy indicators and cost of farm machinery. The study was conducted at the experimental site of Agricultural University of Tirana in a 1.7 ha area in three variants of utilization: conventional, conservative and combining according to randomizer scheme. Soil texture is loam which represents over 65% of Albania's agricultural land. From calculations made on the basis of experimentation results, conservative system of utilization is more economics than others.
utilization; tractor; moldboard plough; chisel plow; farm machinery cost