Soil is the medium that enables us to grow our food, natural fibre and timber. It is not understatement to say that soil is fundamental to the existence of human society. The gradual changes of soil characteristics across the landscape make the study and comparison of different soil types difficult. The credibility of soil science suffers from the lack of a generally accepted system of soil classification. A common language is vital to the functioning of any science. Soil classification is a general term describing any systematic and hierarchical arrangement of soils into categories on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics. During development of knowledge of soils, many kinds of classifications where use before the advent of modern soil science. So called genetic principle remains the guide for most presents day national soil classification. Aware specific terms, Soil Taxonomic recently used in Romania describing  that part of soil classification that part of soil classification whereby arrangements of various soil groups and categories are mainly based on natural relationships between various soils. In order to create a common understanding of soil resources in different countries, a new soil classification system, named WRB-SR has been adopted of the International Union of Soil Science. Romanian Soil Taxonomy (SRTS-2012) has been prepared of a group of soil scientists, having as support soil survey and previous soil classification, like Romanian Soil Classification System (SRCS-1980) and the first edition of Romanian Soil Taxonomy System (SRTS-2003). The SRTS 2012 is not a final one. It has to be used, discussed, critized, completed and updated. The SRTS 2012 is organized of 10 chapters and the general principles are: the classification of soils is based on diagnostic horizons, properties and characteristics and the selection of diagnostic horizons, properties and characteristics takes into account their relationship with soil farming processes. The SRTS 2012 is a two-level system of soil taxonomy, a high level, with 12 classes, 29 soil Genetic Types and  67 Soil Subtypes; and a low level, with Soil Variety, Soil Species, Soil Family and Soil Variant. Soil class is defined as a specific pedogenetic horizon or basic property; soil type is represented by soil bodies with similar features and behavior from the same kinds of the main soil forming processes, soil subtypes groups soils characterized by a particular expression of features specific for the soil type. The system presents also correlations between SRCS-1980, SRTS-2003, FAO-UNESCO-1988, WRB-SR-2006 and SRTS-2012.
soil, classification, taxonomy, map, horizon
Presentation: oral