INFLUENCE OF POLLUTANTS’ CONCENTRATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AT GRAPEWINE PUBLISHEDGilda-Diana BUZATU
At the beginning of this millennium, vineyards located near industrial areas are feeling the impact of anthropogenic factors (crop technology and industrial pollution) in the inter-agrobiological peculiarities of some species and varieties, in terms of physiological, biochemical and also in terms of obtaining superior and healthy production both quantitative and qualitative (Souchère V. et al., 2005). Vineyards can be affected by exposure to variable concentrations of air pollutants coming from power plants, cement plants and lime, road, etc., such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fluorine, carbon powder, and suspended powders, etc. (Ionescu Al., 1982). Environmental pollution in recent years has manifested itself with increased intensity, characterized by values of pollutant concentrations exceeding the established standards and regulations in force . Reducing the polluting effect is a major concern for all economic agents as a result of technological processes producing pollutants and of those monitoring the environmental factors. The present research aims to assess the contribution of energy production plants to background pollution with specific pollutants and to identify the effects of pollutants on vineyard agroecosystems in order to assess physiological processes in plants when in the atmosphere is a certain amount of polluting emissions. In order to attain this objective - determining photosynthesis and transpiration at plants under the influence of climate and air quality - monitoring campaigns were conducted of the pollutants immissions which from, both the legislative point of view and in terms of environmental effects, are of particular interest. There have been also carried out analyzes and measurements in order to establish correlations between the concentrations of pollutants found in ambient air in vineyards and the conduct of physiological processes at vine. Loss of commercial productivity or the appearance of visible injury are the end results of perturbation to physiological processes in the plants, particularly in the leaves. In order to develop rational air quality objectives, it is desirable to understand the extent to which plant processes are influenced by the accession of a pollutant.
SO2; NOx; photosynthesis; transpiration; grapevine.