THE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FIELD ENERGY CROPS PUBLISHEDEva CANDRÁKOVÁ, Milan MACÁK, Štefan ŽÁK
The aim of research was to evaluate the effect of conventional, reduced tillage and no-till technologies and two fertilisation levels on a biomass production for energy use, expressed in yield of dry biomass, energy acquired and indicative price of energy per ha. During 2007-2009, the maize for silage, winter wheat and triticale was evaluated at the experimental fields of Plant Production Research Center Piešťany. The significantly highest yield of dry biomass was reached for maize for silage – 19.41 t ha -1 with comparison to triticale – 15.39 t ha -1 . Winter wheat reached significantly the lowest yield on the average level of 14.08 t ha -1 . The highest amount of energy acquired (in GJ ha -1 ) was accumulated in maize for silage with 236.99 GJ ha -1 followed by triticale with 159.39 GJ ha -1 and winter wheat with 152.52 GJ ha -1 . Composition of energy has been as follow: winter triticale – 35% composed of ethanol and 65% of straw, maize for silage 100% of biogas, winter wheat – 40% of ethanol and 60% of straw. The conventional tillage (CT) support the significantly the highest amount of energy acquired (in GJ ha -1 ) in an average -201.15 GJ ha -1 , followed by minimum-tillage technology (MT) – 186.01 GJ ha -1 and the lowest amount of energy acquired has been identified for non-tillage technology (NT) – 161.65 GJ ha -1 . The highest indicative price of energy was reached for maize for silage (€ 509.5) followed by winter triticale (€342.7) and winter wheat (€ 327.9) and for CT - € 429.48 followed by MT – € 395.75 and for NT only € 344.25. Nitrogen-based fertilisation (N 120 ) has guaranteed increase in indicative price of energy acquired € 415.45 compared to € 362.20 of zero-nitrogen fertilisation in an average. The best result for energy production was reached by maize for silage under conventional tillage 280.77 GJ ha -1 with indicative price of 603.7 €/ha followed by triticale with 170.58 GJ ha -1 and 366.7 €/ha of indicative price. Nitrogen-based fertilisation (N 120 ) increased the indicative price of energy about 31.2 €/ha in winter wheat up to 55.3 €/ha in maize.
maize, winter wheat, triticale, energy crops, tillage, fertilization