TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVATED IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS – INDIRECT BAKING QUALITY PUBLISHEDMagdaléna Magdaléna LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ, Nora SMATANOVÁ
Indirect baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was evaluated in the year 2009 and 2010. Winter wheat was cultivated in ecological (ES) and integrated (IS) farming system with two levels of fertilizing. Farming systems were established at Research Base Dolná Malanta in Western Slovakia region on brown clay-loamy soil. The experimental field altitude was 178 m, average precipitations is 561 mm and average temperature 19.7 °C in July and - 1.7 °C in January. The ecological system was composed of a six course crop rotation: beans + alfalfa – alfalfa – winter wheat – peas – maize – spring barley. The integrated system consisted of the crop rotation: winter wheat – peas – winter wheat – maize – spring barley – lucerne (3 years at the same plot). Subplots were fertilized (F) and unfertilized (N). The F variant in ES was based on 40 t of manure, the IS also recieved 40 t of manure plus synthetic fertilizers. The work presents results of evaluating the indirect baking quality parameters (wet gluten content, gluten index – ICC 155, 158; AACC 38-12; Zeleny test – ICC 116/1) and dough rheological properties (water absorption, dough stability, softening time – ICC No. 115/1). Each evaluated baking quality parameter was affected by forecrop, weather conditions and fertilizing. Winter wheat had high content of wet gluten. More than 31 % was found in fertilized variant, after forecrop alfalfa, in the year 2010. The highest gluten index over 45 % was found after forecrop spring barley. The Zeleny sedimentation which characterises the viscoelastic features and quality of proteins reached 27 – 32 ml. The farinograph determines dough and gluten properties of a flour sample by measuring the resistance of dough against the mixing action of paddles. Rheological dough properties significantly affect production operations – kneading, forming; and the quality of the finished product. Rheological properties were statistically affected by forecrop, weather conditons and fertilizing. Winter wheat dough had high water absorption (58.8 – 61 %), very good dough stability (5.2 – 7.5 min.) and medium softening of dough (67.1 – 44.3 BU). Fertilizing and weather conditions in 2010 had positive effect on rheological properties. System of farming had no effect on rheological properties. Better indirect baking quality parameters were found in integrated system and better rheological properties were found in ecological system.
winter wheat, ecological system, baking quality