INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ON PRODUCTION OF TRITICALE (TRITICOSECALE WITTMACK) PUBLISHEDPavel NEFIR, V. TABĂRĂ
Cereals (wheat, triticale, rye, barley, oats, corn, sorghum, millet, rice, etc.) represents the group of plants growing importance to human existence and activity. They are irreplaceable in human food and animal feed due to the chemical composition of grains containing: carbohydrates (60%), protein substances (10-16%), minerals, fats, vitamins. Grain foods can be consumed daily is appropriate and appreciated the human body needs both in terms of taste and nutrition of their value. Cereals are widely used in many industry goods food: bread and pasta (wheat, triticale, rye, etc..) Invented the manufacture of sugar and vegetable oil (corn) preparation of juices and sweet substances (sorghum) production meal, millet flakes and barley (millet, barley, oats, etc..) Manufacture of starches (wheat, rice, corn, etc..) canning (rice) production of glucose, dextrin (wheat, corn, etc.). cereal grains is the raw material and for other industries such as alcoholic beverages industry (manufacture of spirits and beer from maize, triticale, barley, rice, etc.), pharmaceuticals (the manufacture of scleroţii antihemoragice substances obtained from the rye fungus Cleviceps purpureea of some medicines rice, etc.). Straw (stems) are used in cereals straw pulp and paper industry, in small industry (knitting) and other manufacturing activities. Cereals are the main raw material for production of meat, milk and eggs. No concentrate feed intake can not be deprived of corn, oats, barley, etc. triticale. The most effective succulent forage is obtained from corn, even feed fibers are made up of a cereal mash straw. As occupation, cultivation of cereals (especially straw) technology is simple, requires no special systems for cars, is mechanized and efficient (lower cost cernd). Cereals are important in terms of plant growing: there are good and very good preceding crops, enrich the soil by stimulating processes of nitrification (by harvesting early grain straw) protects the land against soil erosion in hilly areas if seeding be made on contour direction, recover the land on which other cultures are not productive (triticale). As a general rule, triticale combines the high potential of wheat production and quality with disease resistance and tolerance to environmental factors stepchildren (including soil) from rye. Due to advances in genetic improvement of triticale varieties have been developed commercially viable (the production potential and high stability) competitive with other cereals and even corn, especially for hilly areas with infertile soils and low pH. New varieties of triticale are equal or superior to other cultures for grain yield, forage and biomass production for human food, animal feed or industrial applications. As important as forage crop triticale is used mainly in feed concentrate monogastricelor food (pigs and poultry) due to its higher that of other cereals in protein, lysine and tryptophan and high carbohydrate digestibility and protein substances. Recent research shows that protein energy ratio is generally higher when obtained from forage triticale forage than the traditional focus. Triticale protein has higher value as that of wheat, being rich in potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and zinc. From this conclusion it is necessary and an adaptation of the milling and bakery industry, is noted for processing triticalei that all techniques used to date have been made for wheat. Triticale grains have a composition that allows their use in the production of malt for brewing beans triticale quality. Din extract alcohol can be done in the average 400 l / t grain. Experience has been located in specific climatic conditions Răcasdia commune, Caras Severin, on a brown ground, I-mezogleizat moderate slope deposits formed from decomposition and alteration of basic metamorphic rocks. Experience is bifactorial type, so that the annual Repeat the cycle terminates the experimental field we have experience in first year, second year and third year. Biological material have been used varieties: Cascade, Haiduc, TITAN, Style, Gorun. Mineral fertilizers applied to crop triticale, increased grain production. Variation in grain production in triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) vary depending on variety and the influence of fertilization. The results of this study are part of a doctoral program, with as theme: "Research on crop production potential of triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack)" funded by the Ministry of Education and Sports Research Tinertului by IOD U.S.A.M.V.B. Timisoara under the distinguished university professor Valeriu Tabara.
triticale, variety, fertilization, production.