Roman Mihail Bogdan, Valeriu Tabără, Ioana Maria Mateaş
Abstract:Wheat is the most important cultivated plant, the largest share food . Large surfaces that is sown , and the attention of the plant are due to enjoy : the high content of grain in carbohydrates and proteins and the ratio of these substances requisite body , long grain preservation challenge and the fact that they can be transported without difficulty that the plant has high ecological plasticity , being grown in culture . The composition of wheat grain non-nitrogenous extractive substances predominate ( 62-75 % ) of the fresh weight of the grain, formed by more than 90 % of starch, dextrin and the remainder , and other simple carbohydrates . Non-nitrogenous Extracts are accumulated mainly in endosperm proteins . Usual protein substances represent 10-16 % of the grain mass ( limits between 8 and 24%) and are located mostly at the periphery of the grains ( coatings , aleurone layer ) in the embryo and scutellum . The amount and composition of grain protein giving nutritional quality . The accumulation of protein in the grain depends on a number of factors, such as wheat species , variety, climatic conditions , natural fertility of the soil and nitrogen rates used . Of these factors, climatic conditions have a particularly important role . In dry , warm climates , the accumulation of protein in the grain is favored , on the other hand during training and grain filling is shorter , is baking a hurry and therefore percentage of protein is more grain composition . In contrast, in wet and cool climates is favored accumulation carbonl also hydrates , grain formation period is longer , which favors the accumulation of large amounts of starch. Also , under irrigation , content in wheat grain protein substances is lower . Whole wheat proteins consist mainly of occupying the space between the endosperm and starch grains , after macun in flour includes grains of starch. By adding water, gluten forming collodion membrane which will retain some carbon dioxide bubbles in the dough and give rise to soft dough . The grains of wheat " wheat " manufacture of pasta , contain a higher amount of protein and gluten, but gluten has a shoddy bakery instead is strong according to anufacture pasta , boil with high stability due filaments farte protein resistant .
Keywords: wheat, fertilization, protein, gluten.
Presentation: oral