YIELD FORMATION STRATEGIES OF COMMON PEA PUBLISHEDEva CANDRÁKOVÁ1, Milan MACÁK2
During 2006-2008, the polyfactorial field trial of growing common peas variety Xantos was established on Experimental site of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, in south-western Slovakia (E 18º09', N 48º19') with altitude of 175 m above MSL (Mean Sea Level). The location has continental warm and moderate arid climate with an average annual temperature of 9.07°C an average annual precipitation of 561 mm. The mean temperature during the growing season is 16.2°C. The soil type is Orthic Luvisol with a loamy texture, medium humus content of 1.95%-2.60% and a pH of 5.7. The Slovak variety of common pea Svit was tested. The tested variety is medium early, leafless type, with good plasticity to soil and climate condition. Three fertilization treatments as follows: 0-without organic and inorganic fertilization, PH –mineral fertilizers calculated to the 3 t yield level, PR- incorporation of all above-ground plant material of forecrop (maize for corn) supplemented with mineral fertilizer to the balance equilibrium level. Common pea (Pisum sativum L.) was growing after maize. In autumn, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied. In spring, 20 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen as a starting dose was also applied. The influence of mineral fertilization and green manure treatments on creation of yield component, yield of seeds and yield of pea straw was evaluated. The yield of seeds was highly significantly influenced by year condition. The yield range from 2.82 t ha-1 in 2008 to 4.06 t ha -1 in 2006. The same trends were noted in straw production, when the yield of straw was higher than seed production. Harvest index ranged from 0.79 to 0.96. The significantly higher yield was reached in mineral fertilization treatments (3.53 t ha-1) and treatments with mineral fertilization with incorporation of all forecrop aboveground material (3.48 t ha-1). Due to the nitrogen depression, forecrop residues treatments negatively affected the yield of pea (3.1 t ha-1). The yield of seeds was highly significantly influenced by number of pots per plant and TSW. The significant direct relationship between pots number per plant and TSW was found. The highest TSW was in 2006 (265.85 g). Mineral fertilizers and forecrop residue incorporation positively influenced the number of seeds per pod.
common pea, crop residues, fertilization, yield, yield component