WEED INFESTATION MAIZE IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS PUBLISHEDŠtefan TÝR
The aim of the present papers was to evaluate the occurrence and development of weed species of current weed infestation maize crops in sustainable land management systems. The work has provided some partial objectives. To assess the impact of climate variables (temperature and precipitation) for the current weed infestation for the period 2005 – 2012. To assess the dynamics of individual weed species in ecological and integrated farming systems. To evaluate the influence of factors such as system management, manure and fertilizer grade on incidence of weeds in maize crop for 2005 – 2012. Evaluate the impact of the current crop of against weeds the main product of corn for the years 2005 – 2012. The objectives set were subjected to detailed statistical analysis and evaluation on which were drawn specific conclusions and recommendations for the implementation of integrated environmental and land management system in practice. The dynamics of individual weed species in crops of corn can be regarded as different in integrated and ecological farming systems. It stands for both land management system seedling in the total of 21 weed species of plants for the period from 2005 – 2012. We analyzed all occurring species: Amaranthus retroflexus L., Anagallis arvensis L., Atriplex spp. L., Avena fatua L., Cardaria draba Desv., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Datura stramonium L., Echinochloa crus galli (L.) P. Beauv., Galium aparine L., Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium hybridum L. Lamium spp. L., Persicaria lapathifolia (Raf.)S.F.Gray, Persicaria maculosa (Raf.) S.F.Gray, Polygonum aviculare L., Portulaca oleracea L., Sonchus arvensis L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Thlaspi arvense L., Tripleurospermum perforatum (L.) Schultz – Bip. Actual weed infestation proportionally is affecting the yield of corn only for ecological land management system. The integrated system management, although herbicide used to maintain crop harvest almost to no weeds, but not indirectly increase in yield because the yield is more of a statistically significant effect that had a rainfall for the growing season. Based on the analyzes it is possible to say that the rainfall for the period 2005 – 2012, had a statistically significant effect on actual weed infestation of corn crops in the spring, it also had no statistically significant effect on weed infestation before harvest. In applying preventive, direct and indirect measures of regulation weed infestation is environmentally friendly and integrated fully viable in the cultivation of corn as a separate system for sustainable land management.
weeds, actual weed infestation, maize, sustainable agricultural systems