EMMER – ANCIENT WHEAT SUITABLE FOR ECOLOGICAL FARMING PUBLISHEDMagdaléna Lacko-Bartošová, Veronika Čurná, Lucia Lacko-Bartošová
The objective of this study was to evaluate production parameters and selected nutritional compounds of three winter emmer wheat varieties, cultivated under the conditions of ecological farming in the south region of the Slovak republic during two growing seasons. Field experiments were established on a Haplic Luvisol developed at proluvial sediments mixed with loess. Experimental location has continental climate, belongs to warm agro-climatic region, arid subregion with predominantly mild winter. The average long-term temperature is 9.8°C and for vegetative period it is 16.4°C. Production and nutritional parameters were analyzed in three varieties of winter emmer wheat – Agnone, Molise sel Colli, Guardiaregia in three repetitions. The experimental data were statistically evaluated by STATISTICA 7.0, using multifactorial analysis of variance. The influence of weather conditions on selected production parameters was higher as compared with the effect of tested varieties. Significant differences between varieties were determined in production parameters: weight of grains per spike and TGW. Average weight of grains per spike was 1.63 g, TWG averaging about 47.67 g. Average theoretical yields of emmer varieties was 6.9 t.ha-1. Nutritional compounds were not influenced by variety; only the crude protein content was affected by weather conditions during two growing seasons. The average content of fat was 0.96 %, average crude protein content was 13.6 %, and the highest was achieved by variety Agnone (14.17 %). The mean soluble fiber content was 0.41%. Soluble fiber is known for its hypocholesterolaemic effect. Starch is the main storage carbohydrate in wheat kernels, accounting for 61 – 68 % of the grain. As a primary functional component in cereal grains, its content and characteristics are known to substantially the affect quality of wheat and its end-products. Starch content of three emmer varieties varied from 65.1 % to 66.0 %, without significant influence of weather conditions and variety. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredience. Emmer wheat can be suitable and profitable crop when cultivated in marginal areas or under conditions of low-input and ecological agriculture, where modern wheats are unable to develop their full productive potential because they have been selected for favourable pedoclimatic and intensive agronomic conditions. Emmer cultivation is justified under low-input, ecological conditions, where its agronomic performance becomes profitable with respect to modern free-threshing wheats.
emmer wheat, ecological farming, production parameters, nutritional parameters