THE ACTUAL WEED INFESTATION AND SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS IN WINTER WHEAT PUBLISHEDŠtefan Týr
Actual status in relation to the possibilities of growing winter wheat in organic and integrated land management is closely related to the current weed infestation and field crops. In the paper we observed two different management systems. One of the mentioned is called environmental and the second one is called integrated. The research was focused on the actual weed infestation of winter wheat. Small-parcelled experiment was realized in Dolná Malanta near the Nitra in 2014 and 2015 years. The objective was to quantify and evaluate the actual weed infestation in the crop of summer wheat, winter form, in both management systems on land. We observed two different systems namely amended and unmanured, in organic and integrated farming systems. In the integrated system was provided herbicidal protection by effective substance of appliance Mustang and fungicidal protection by effective substance of appliance Tango Super. In ecological system the chemical regulation wasn´t applied, we used mechanical regulation of weed infestation namely protection of bar shaped gates. The results were evaluated with two methods: a counting and combined counting and mass method. By counting method was evaluated a crop of winter wheat in the spring. By counting and mass method was evaluated a crop of weed infestation before harvest of summer wheat, winter form. The unmanured variant had less weed infestation than the amended variant. The weed infestation was higher in the ecological system. The integrated system has reached lower weed infestation, because of the absence of chemicals for regulation of weed infestation. Mechanical operations are not as effective, as herbicide. Important species in ecological system in the spring were, for example, weeds such as Capsela bursa pastoris, Thlaspi arvense, Cirsium arvense, Sonchus arvensis and others. In the integrated system has occurred several weed species in the spring such as Medicago sativa, Thlaspi arvense, Stellaria media, and Convolvulus arvensis. In the crops before harvest has occurred in ecological farming system species such as: Tripleurospermum perforatum, Cirsium arvense, Thlaspi arvense and Medicago sativa. In the integrated system before harvest has occurred weed species such as: Medicago sativa, Cirsium arvense and Convolvulus arvensis. In the crops of winter wheat was found a variant dependency. Based on the measured values and the observed results we dare to claim, that management systems with fertilization have a significant effect on weed infestation of winter wheat crop.
winter wheat, weeds, weed control, sustainable systems