Gh. MATEI , Ana Maria DODOCIOIU None
Abstract. Research has led to the conclusion that beer is the oldest drink produced by man. The first evidence about beer dates back 4,000 years. It is assumed that Mesopotamia is the land where this liquor has been produced for the first time. Her discovery was completely accidental: a harvest of barley bread-making, devastated by rain to germinate. Exposed to the sun, germinated barley is contaminated with yeasts naturally present in air and thus was born beer. The main raw materials used in brewing and malting industry are: barley, common hop, water and malt substitutes (Felicia Stoica, 2012). Malt is a product made from grains (mostly barley) sprouted, dried and milled, used in the manufacture of beer and spirits or fried for the preparation of a coffee substitute (Romanian DEX, ed.1998). It is the main raw material used in the manufacture of beer, it is a source of substances into the substrate and a source of hydrolytic enzymes which by their action on the substrate leads to the formation of the production of worth extract. In brewing, malt is analysed chemically and physically. It is estimated the appearance, size, uniformity of grain, colour, purity, smell, taste and resistance to crushing teeth. Malt grains must be as large and smooth. The main chemical constituent of the barley, the starch is in the form of granules located in the cells of the endosperm. The beads of different sizes have a structure midsole, semi-crystalline, consisting of concentric layers formed on a spot. The structure is broken when grain absorbs water, it swells and hot, its components gelatinizes chemicals. From the chemical point of view, the granule is composed of 17-24% amylose, 74-81% amylopectin and 2% of other substances (polar lipid, protein substances, and minerals). Nitrogenous substances can quantity vary greatly with variety and related to the pedo-climatic conditions. Thus, for malting barley, malt and especially for obtaining blonde beers, should contain dry substance from 9 to 11.5%. Although the amount of protein in a barley only 1/3 pass into beer, they have a great influence on beer quality, affecting the colour, fullness of taste, foaming characteristics, its colloidal stability of beer and flavour (Banu C., 2009).
malt types, quality of malt, grain uniformity, total protein content.
Presentation: oral