STUDIES CONCERNING MECHANIZATION OF SOIL WORKS IN WHEAT CULTURE PUBLISHED

R. ILEA, Anișoara DUMA COPCEA, R. MILOȘ ileaupc@yahoo.com
The tillage system has been representing one of the major technological elements used to interfere in order to increase plant production and, lately, more and more in order to optimize the relationship between production – benefit – the preservation of fertility and resources. The conventional system, in addition to its advantages, has repercussions and disadvantages. Thus, the large number of works and repeated field crossings with agricultural tractors and machines adversely affects agro physical features (surface and depth compaction, soil structure degradation, humus content reduction), agro biological (reduction of living creatures and biological activity) leading to decreasing the natural fertility of the soil in the long term and in some areas the phenomenon of erosion is accentuated. Through its nature and functions, soil represents a live organism recrossed by energetic flows, which intercondition each other, governed by natural laws that seem to be in an apparent equilibrium. The complexity of the energetic flows within the agricultural production process imposes a certain drastic control upon inputs and outputs at each production loop and the avoidance of the possibly exhausted resources, like soil and water. Starting from the necessity of eliminating the disadvantages of the conventional system, the development of alternative soil technology to ensure the preservation and maintenance of its productive capacity as well as the reduction of energy consumption are today basic requirements for the development and building of a sustainable agriculture. New technologies for mechanization of soil works in a conservative system include several processing systems: minimum tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage or direct drill. In recent years, the mechanized soil conservation works has been successfully applied to our country, especially in the farms with modern agricultural machinery. The studies in this paper refer to the minimum works for the wheat culture under the conditions of Mercina-Caraş Severin. The high-productivity agricultural aggregates used in mechanized works have allowed them to be achieved in optimum sowing time. The variants of working the land with the heavy disc harrow, combined rotating-action harrow, total-processing cultivator contribute to the amelioration of soil’s physical features, as resulted from the evolution of these features during the experimental cycle. However, within their application, we must take into consideration the soil’s technological features, which depend on texture, structure, humus content, and land exposure and weather conditions.
wheat, agricultural aggregates, minimal tillage, fuel, economic indexes.
Soil Sciences
Presentation: oral

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