Anișoara DUMA COPCEA, Casiana MIHUȚ, O. ARSENE duma_anisoara@yahoo.com
Advanced, performing agriculture from the perspective of yield and labour productivity in different countries is based on an important technical and economic segment: mechanisation of soil works. Equipping modern sustainable agriculture according to peak country expertise in the field is done with machines and equipment among which energy equipment are of great economic importance and efficacy. For Romania, with its great agricultural potential per capita and with favourable soil and climate conditions, it is important to increase labour productivity by increasing the degree of mechanisation on agricultural holdings. Straw cereals cover an important area in Romania, with wheat ranking first among cops. From a cropping science point of view, wheat cultivation is completely mechanised. Studies were carried out in the conditions specific to the Timis Plain and they concerned wheat, the crop with the widest cultivation area in the Banat’s Plain. The mechanised works in wheat were stubble-turning, ploughing, fertilising, preparing the germination bed, sowing, treating with herbicides and harvesting. These works were done with modern tractors and agricultural machines of high productivity. In mechanised works in wheat we determined the following technical and economic indices: productivity of agricultural aggregates, fuel consumption, direct costs, auxiliary costs, material costs and profit. These indices were reported in the technological charts of mechanised works. Studies allowed us to draw a few conclusions on the optimisation of mechanisation in wheat. The system of agricultural production is represented by the manner in which an enterpriser combines products, factors, and technological and economic measures at hand to practice crop rotation and reach desired economic outcomes. Choosing crops and cultivars, carrying out works in due time and of high quality, carefully monitoring the evolution of its components, ensuring optimum density in plants per ha, all this depend on skills, aptitudes, creativeness and inventiveness of the managers of agricultural holdings. For Romania, a country with a huge agricultural potential (arable land per capita and favourable climate conditions), it is important to increase labour productivity by increasing the degree of mechanisation of agricultural holdings.
wheat, crop, harvesting combine, threshing, grain loss, yield
Soil Sciences
Presentation: oral