FUMONISIN OCCURRENCE IN CEREAL AND CEREAL-BASED FOODSTUFFS MARKETED IN TIMIS COUNTY PUBLISHEDPetruta Galbenu, Lăcrămioara Damiescu, Alexandra Trif
Abstract: Fumonisins (FUM) are a group of mycotoxins synthesized by different species of the genus Fusarium, mainly Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, which known to contaminate maize and maize-based foods and feeds all over the world. The fumonisins belong to the most toxic fungal metabolites. In human and animals they have been associated with equine leucoencefalomalacia (ELEM), porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) and esophageal cancer (EC) in different countries. The goal of this study was to determine the presence and contamination level of one of the most toxic and frequently detected fumonisin, fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), in cereal and cereal-based foods purchased from Timis County, an area of western Romania, during a period of two years (2009-2010). FB 1 concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. To reach the aim of this study there were investigated 29 samples of foodstuffs mainly of maize origin such as unprocessed maize, maize cans, maize puffs, cornflakes, and maize snacks, but also unprocessed wheat and breakfast cereals. FB 1 was identified in eight samples (27.59 %) belonging to the maize and maize-based products categories. The FB 1 values obtained in this study were ranging between 30 µg/kg (cornflakes) and 92.42 µg/kg (corn puffs). FB 1 was not detected in the unprocessed wheat and breakfast cereal samples. The mean and median values of all commodities analyzed ranged between 30.5 µg/kg (cornflakes) and 92.42 µg/kg (corn puffs). Overall, the mean and median values registered were of 67.94 µg/kg and 78 µg/kg, respectively. However, none of the values exceeded the maximum allowed levels by the European Commission (EC) in the different commodities analyzed. The results obtained where compared to the occurrence data found in the literature. Whereas most surveys focus on FUM contamination of different crops this paper represents one of the first screening on a variety of cereal and cereal-based foodstuffs mostly of maize origin marketed in an area of western Romania.
Fumonisin, occurrence, levels, foodstuffs, Timis County, Romania