PRODUCTION PROCESS OF WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZATION PUBLISHEDEva Hanackova, Pavol Slamka
Abstract : The influence of conventional and minimal soil cultivation in interaction with mineral fertilization and utilization of the by-product on the winter wheat yield, uptake of nutrients by yield and energetic effectiveness in experimental years 2004-2006 was investigated in the experiment. Different soil cultivation did not influence grain yield significantly. Higher yield by 0.17 t ha -1 was achieved at minimal cultivation than at ploughing. In fertilized treatments grain yield was significantly higher than in unfertilized control. On the average of three experimental years and cultivation methods, the highest yield of grain (7.26 t ha -1 ) was gained in treatment rationally fertilized by mineral fertilizers. Increment of grain yield was influenced by forecrop (21.7 %), soil cultivation (3.3 %), fertilization (32.9 %) and year (42.1 %). There was found out strong linear relationship between yield of phytomass and NPK nutrients uptake (r = 0.817 xxx ). One ton of grain and relevant amount of straw of variety Bonita took up 21.7 kg of N, 4.9 kg of P, 15.6 kg of K, 4.6 kg of Ca and 2.2 kg of Mg from soil. Energetic effectiveness of fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers is very good. On the average of three experimental years higher energetic effectiveness was determined under conventional soil cultivation (E = 15.3). Within fertilized treatments the highest energetic effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization was calculated in treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers (E = 13.5).
Key words: winter wheat, tillage of soil, mineral fertilizers, post harvest residue, yield of grain, nutrients uptake