DEOXYNIVALENOL AND ZEARALENONE IN WINTER WHEAT GROWN IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS PUBLISHEDMagdaléna Lacko-Bartošová, Ľubomír Kobida
A long term trial comparing ecological (ECO) and integrated (INT) farming systems was carried out in western Slovakia from 1990 to 2009. The location has a continental climate, with average temperatures of 19,7 °C in July and – 1,7 °C in January and an average annual precipitation of 561 mm, the soil type is a Haplic luvisol. The ECO and INT systems were composed of a six stage crop rotation. Subplots were fertilised and unfertilised treatments. 25 g samples of w. wheat was placed into a 250 mL glass Erlenmayer flask and then 100 mL of 84+16 acetonitrile water were added. After stired extract was filtered and clean up by immunoaffinity column MycoSepTM 226 for ZON and 227 for DON. Purified extract was evaporate to dryness using RVO 400 and redisloved in 0,5 mL mobile phase. The concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZON) was detected in the w. wheat grain samples by using of HPLC WATERS BREEZE equipped with binary pump WATERS 1525, RHEODYNE injector and UV detector WATERS 2487 was used with a stainless steel reverse phase 150x3,9 mm, 4 m m spherical particle C18 Nova-Pak column. UV detector set to 218 nm for DON and 238 nm for ZON. Mobile phase were mix of of A: water, B: acetonitrile with using gradient. In ECO system, the concentration of DON was lower by 46 % (average 192,4 µg.kg-1 ) compared with INT system (average 361,6 µg.kg-1 ). Fertilisation treatments enhanced the level of DON in both systems. Within INT system also pre-crop effect on DON was revealed, peas as pre-crop significantly enhance the concentration of DON. The effects of farming system and fertilisation were not significant for ZON, but level of ZON was influenced by weather conditions. Drier and warmer weather supported the production of ZON, more humid and warm weather enhanced the level of DON.
deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ecological ,integrated system