POPA Mihaela1, COTUNA Otilia1
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be attacked by many pathogens both in field and in deposits. Most of the time the peanuts are healthy, but during improper storage they can be contaminated with fungi. The myco-flora associated with the peanut seeds is formed mainly by fungi from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus. The mentioned fungi are very harmful for health because they are producing carcinogenic mycotoxins. Mainly the Aspergillus species can infect peanuts during the vegetation period, especially in the case very high humidity conditions in field. Thus, the infection can continue during the harvesting, transport and storage. Due to this fact, the problem of the accumulation of aflatoxins is very serious in the big peanut cultivating countries. Many researches show the presence of the aflatoxins in the sold peanuts. The approached topic in this research is actually and presents interests for the consumers in special. The identification if the myco-toxigenous from peanuts from supermarket was realised on seeds that were originating from four countries (Romania, Brasil, U.S.A. and Egipt). The main objective of this laboratory study was to identify the myco-toxigenous fungi, mainly those that grow on and from peanuts sold in supermarkets in Timisoara. During the sample collection there was considered the origin of the peanuts to comprise different parts of the world. The peanuts were bought from big supermarkets. The obtained results regarding the fungal contamination index of the peanuts seeds with fungi show the presence in myco-flora of some myco-toxigenous fungi harmful for health. Fusarium sp. is highlighted in all the samples by a quite great contamination rate comprised between 5.12% (the peanut crust samples from U.S.A.). The contamination of the seeds with the myco-toxigenous fungus Aspergillus flavus is obvious in the case of the peanuts from U.S.A. where was registered the greatest infection rate of 25.89% in seeds and 10.25% in crusts. The third fungus that was determined in quite great rates on the peanuts seeds was Penicillium sp. The greatest infection level was registered in the samples from China (24.56%) and U.S.A. (22.32%). Aside the three myco-toxigenous fungi was grown in a great rate in some samples the fungus Rhizopus sp., that usually is present in the peanuts seeds. The greatest infection level of the infection was determined in the peanuts from Egipt (65.85%) and those from Romania (64.56%).
Fusarium sp., Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, myco-toxigenous fungi.
Biology applied in Agriculture
Presentation: oral