Creț C., Șeran P., Anișoara Duma Copcea, Mihuț Casiana, Ilea R. None
Abstract. Research was carried out in the conditions specific to Chișineu Criș, Arad County, Romania. The oils in the Crişului Alb Plain are chernozems, solonchaks, vertisols, and gleysols. The study is about wheat culture, the crop most extended in the area. Besides wheat, in the area they also cultivate on large areas grain maize and, on smaller areas, fodder crops. In the fall of 2016, they sowed 100 ha with wheat. Harvesting was done in June 2017. Seed and sowing. To be used for sowing, seed must be adapted to an area, come from acknowledged crops with high biological value, with minimum 98% physical purity, with minimum 90% germination, and with the highest weight of 1,000 grains. Plants from large seeds form the jointing node deeper, are better rooted, and resist better to low temperatures. The sowing period has great influence on the future crop, since it allows good jointing in the fall and storage of nutrients for the cold season and good resistance to wintering. Experimental data point out that the best results are when, during the 40-50 days from sprouting to winter (when temperature goes below +5°C), there is accumulation of 450-550°C. This corresponds to beginning of sowing, when air temperatures decreases to 13-15°C, and ending of sowing, when it reaches 8-9°C. For plain areas in southern and western Romania and for the Transylvanian Plain, this corresponds to September 25 – October 15, and. For the hill areas, to September 15 -20 – October 1. In the areas around the mountain area, sowing must be finished by September 25. Plant density. There are normal yields when there are 500-700 ears/m2. This can be ensured by sowing 400-600 germinable grains/m2, depending on the cultivar jointing ability. Seed amount varies, depending on its biological value, purity, and weight of 1,000 grains, between 200-280 kg/ha. Row distance is 10-15 cm. sowing in rows 6 cm close should be done only on lands with no plant debris and with a high chopping degree. In the last years, increasingly more countries have adopted the uncultivated path cultivation method allowing equipment for fertilisation and pest treatment. They, thus, avoid benchmarking, overlapping of soil works or soils not worked at all, and no crop damage. Sowing depth is established depending on the soil type and texture, on water supply and on germinating energy, and it ranges within 4-7 cm. under good moisture conditions, wheat should be sowed at 4-5 cm and, on dry soils, at 6-7 cm, in cultivars with long coleoptile. Fertilisation. Basic fertilisation was done before sowing with complex fertilisers 20.20.0 at rates of 250 kg/ha. During vegetation, they spread 220 kg/ha ammonia nitrate and 10 kg/ha urea.
mechanisation technology, wheat culture, fertilisation
environmental engineering
Presentation: poster