VARIATION OF THE CONTENT OF α- AND β-THUJONE IN SALVIA AETHEROLEUM DUE TO DIFFERENT CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGIES PUBLISHEDMonica COTARCĂ, Valeriu TABARĂ
Common or garden sage leaves (Folium salviae) contain volatile oil (at least 1.00%) and tanning materials (up to 8.00%). The main component of Common sage oil is thujone (30.00-50.00%). The leaves are sued in mouth conditions, in pharyngitis, amygdalitis, and laryngitis. It is widespread in gardens, as ornamental, meliferous, and medicinal plant. In Romania, they cultivate the local cultivar De Răsmireşti (Bâlteanu, 1993). Aetheroleum Salviae is obtained by hydrolising Common sage leaves; it is a yellow or yellow-grenish, with neuter reaction, with strong camphor smell reminding that of Tanacetum (Ciulei, Grigorescu & Stănescu, 1993). Thujone has limited uses. This chemical compound is a neurotoxic substance that induces absinthism. This syndrome is characterised by addiction, hyperexcitability, and hallucinations. Because of this, FAO/WHO introduced, for the first time, in 1979, restrictions of the use of α- and β-thujone, limiting its sue as food or alcohol additives. Common sage volatile oil contains between 22.00 and 62.00% thujone (more (more in Italian or Bulgarian oil) depending on the group of compounds, alcohols expressed as borneol 2-165, terpenic hydrocarbons 35.00%, ketone 50.00%, and esters 3.00%. At present, scientists make new trials to see if Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is beneficial for patients suffering from serious cognition diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. A study published in February 2003 presented conclusions concerning the efficacy of Common sage in the treatment of light forms of Alzheimer’s disease (Akhondzadeh, Noroozian, Mohamadi, Ohadinia, Jamshidi & Khani, 2003). The exact nature of Common sage effects was still obscure, but a previous trial carried out in laboratory conditions had revealed that Common sage can protect a substance destroyed in the Alzheimer’s disease (Perry, Houghton, Sampson, Theobald, Hart, Lis-Balchin, Hoult, Evans, Jenner, Milligan & Perry, 2001). Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is a plant that, due to its biochemical constituents in Salviae Folium, Salviae Herba, or Salviae Aetheroleum, is a source of antioxidants and nutrients: calories, proteins, sugars, lipids, and alimentary fibber, vitamin K and iron (Santé Canada, 1995) with impact on blood lipids and sugars. The extract from green or dry leaves is of inner and outer use in both human (Constantinescu, 1976) and veterinary medicine (Singh, Sharma & Jain, 1974; Verzar-Petri & Then, 1975). Common sage is used in cooking, in the cosmetics industry and in the beverage industry (Myrsini Lambraki, 2003).
Keywords: Common sage essential oil, α- thujone, β-thujone, row direction, oil quality