Diana MUREȘAN1, 2, Adina VARADI1, 2, Ionuţ RACZ1, 2, Rozalia KADAR2, Marcel M. DUDA1
Facultative wheat can be sown both autumn and spring and it can easily adapt to climate change because of its intermediate requirements for vernalization. These requirements for vernalization are satisfied in 5 - 30 days to 5 - 10°C, compared to typical winter wheats (witch need low temperatures, 1-3 °C, for approx. 30 - 60 days) or typical spring wheats (witch need a few days of exposure to temperatures of 5 - 20°C). In 2018, for the first time, at ARDS Turda, the researchers started a study on the behavior of several facultative wheat genotypes sown in spring. Using the subdivided plots method, into three replication, there were studied six genotypes of wheat (Taisa, Ciprian and Lennox – facultative wheat; Pădureni, Granny and Triso – spring wheat) in terms of production and quality. The influence of the sowing date (E), the row spacing (D) and the applied fertilizer dose (F) were the main technological elements pursued in this experience. The aim was to establish an optimal sowing date for facultative wheat in spring and to see the difference of yield and grain protein content of facultative wheat in comparison with spring wheat. The interaction E x S has significantly influenced (p > 0.1%) yield, thousand kernel weight (TKW) and test weight (TW). The grain protein content, the gluten content and Zeleny test (sedimentation index) were significantly influenced by the genotype, row spacing and fertilization. The sowing date had a significantly influence on TW, while the fertilization had no statistical influence on this parameter. Sown in 15 of March, Taisa (the new facultative wheat cultivar created at ARDS Turda) exceeded Pădureni (a typical spring cultivar) with 419 kg/ha, which means an important progress in wheat breeding. The research is on the beginning, but is useful and very important in order to improve the cultivation technology of facultative wheat in Transylvania Plain.
facultative wheat, quality, sowing date, spring wheat, yield
Biology applied in Agriculture
Presentation: oral