REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES ON THE MECHANIZATION OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE PUBLISHEDAurelian BULIGA-ȘTEFĂNESCU1 email@example.com
The mechanization of agriculture plays a fundamental role from a technical, financial and social point of view for sustainable development. Investments in high-performance agricultural machinery ensure cost reduction, increase soil quality processings and reduce environmental pollution. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the technical endowment with agricultural equipment of the Romanian farmers during 1990-2018. The following statistical indicators were studied for the analysis: the number of agricultural tractors, tractor plows, mechanical cultivators, mechanical seeders, chemical fertilizer spreaders, mechanical traction and dusting machines, self-propelled grain harvesters, self-propelled harvesters, harvester combines and potato harvesting machines, balers for straw and hay baling, and windrowers for fodder harvesting. The period analyzed was divided into two intervals: 1990-2006 pre-accession to the EU and 2007-2018 - post-accession to the EU. The limitation of the research consists in the fact that there are no statistical data regarding the number of obsolete machines which are used as scrap iron. Purchasing a 200 hp tractor meant scrapping three U650 tractors. Consequently, the pollution level was significantly reduced. A clear picture of the agricultural machinery park in Romania can be obtained only from the general agricultural census or from a structural survey based on questions related to the characteristics (size) of the machines, the power (horsepower) of the tractors, the mode of acquisition (new or second hand). It is interesting to find out from the total number of new machines how many were purchased by credit / leasing and how many were acquired as a result of accessing European funds. Even though agricultural production has increased significantly in recent years, Romania's trade deficit in agriculture is about one billion euros a year, generated by the fact that Romania exports raw materials and imports processed products. In order for Romania to increase the value of agricultural production, investments should be urgently directed not only towards mechanization but also to processing.
agriculture, machinery, Romania, mechanization