ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF MONARDA DIDYMA PUBLISHED

Florina Nicoleta (căs. Botoș) BOJINESCU1, Renata ȘUMĂLAN, Iuliana POPESCU Georgeta POP None iuliapopescu2002@yahoo.com
This study refers to the establishment of minimum inhibitory concentrations of mycelial growth (MIC) in vitro conditions on fungi: Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus flavus and the correlation of this index with the chemical composition of Monarda didyma oil. We notice that the volatile oil of Monarda didyma inhibits the development of the mycelium of the two fungi, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.3%, having a high antifungal potential, due to the favorable ratio between linalool and thymol compounds. Cultura de Monarda was located in the experimental field of the Experimental Didactic Resort of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat “King Mihai I of Romania” from Timisoara. From 282 g total amount of dried grass was obtained 10 ml of essential oil, and from 300 grams of fresh grass (inflorescences and leaves) was obtained 2 ml of essential oil, by Soxleth extraction method. The analysis of the volatile oil of Monarda didyma cultivated in the years 2018-2019 highlighted up to 29 compounds, highlighting a high content of linalool 34.84-56.29%, thymol 12.29-19.90%, o-cimol 10.77- 18.31%, terpinen range 5.14-15.46% which varied depending on the condition of the material from which the fresh (green) or dry volatile oil was extracted, the time of harvest, the climatic conditions and the different ratio between inflorescences and leaves of the samples from which the oil was extracted. Medicinal plants have been used since ancient times in the human body’s struggle with disease. Modern science has, now, demonstrated the subtle effect they have on the body. In search of what was necessary for life, man noticed that some plants, placed on wounds, relieved the pain, favouring their scarring, and that others, when consumed, cured some diseases. The cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants is favoured by the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania. The variety of natural conditions favours a variety of species, which are sources of plant material for medicine and nutrition. Medicinal and aromatic plants are known from Antiquity, the ancient civilizations contributing to the knowledge and use of as many species as possible. Parallel to the development of chemistry, it was also possible to know the active substances (active principles) of plants. In the production of medicinal plants and herbs, the quality of the products is given by the content of active principles. The quantity of active principles in the plant is subject to ecological factors, species zoning, cultivation technology, biological value of the cultivar (population, variety, hybrid, etc.) and, last but not least, primary and secondary processing arrangements. When choosing a species for a given crop area, the complexity of the interaction of different vegetation factors shall be taken into account to ensure an optimal ratio between the pedoclimatic conditions and the biological requirements of the plants. This avoids situations where natural conditions may increase the production of plant biomass to the detriment of the content in active principles. The cultivation of aromatic and medicinal plants is favoured by the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania. Their variety favours a variety of species, which are a source of plant material for medicine, perfumery and nutrition
Monarda Didyma, antifungal, esential oil, Botritys, Aspergilius
Field crops and pastures
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