THE ANALYSIS OF CARTOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS USED IN ROMANIA PUBLISHEDM. HERBEI, Roxana HERBEI, L. DRAGOMIR, A. SMULEAC
Basic documents that are made according to measurements and topographic surveying for thepurpose of creating various projects are plans and topographic maps. Achieving these documents mustaccurately represent the earth's surface with its representative elements. These documents are made byusing cartographic projections that must be analyzed according to the quality of the representation inorder to obtain plans and maps with high accuracy and superior quality. Regarding the elements that canbe deformed within a projection, these are angles, distance or acres. Between the years 1855-1857, thefirst map of Wallachia was made (also known as "Satmari Map") using the scale 1:57 600. This mapcontains the historical provinces Wallachia and Oltenia, and it is the first map under the name ofRomania. After the First World War, due to economic, political and administrative reasons, the necessityarose for a large-scale map (1:20 000, 1:10 000 or even 1:5 000) by reproducing and multiplyingexisting land originals. The new cartographic documents, known as "drawing master plans" were drawnup in a unique projection throughout the country, namely the Lambert projection. After the Second WorldWar, the Romanian Cartography has strongly developed. Thus, in order to obtain plans and topographicmaps in the shortest time and at the lowest possible price, the Photogrammetry Center was established in1958, which later in 1970 became the Institute of Geodesy, Photogrammetry, Cartography and LandManagement (IGFCOT), where plans were drawn up to the scales 1:2 000, 1:5 000 and 1:10 000required either by national economy, or for land records, or to urban planning. The modern topographicmap was also created to the scale 1:25 000 (1972-1981) using the Gauss-Krüger transverse cylindricalprojection. In Romania, over time many cartographic projections were used to create basic maps, asfollows: Muffling polyhedral projection introduced in 1873 – for the Austrian map covering alsoTransilvania; Cassini cylindrical projection introduced in 1876 based on Bessel ellipsoid; Bonneequivalent conical projection introduced in 1873, based on Clarke 1880 and Bessel 1841ellipsoid;Lambert- Cholesky conformal conic projection - introduced in 1917, based on Clarke ellipsoid;Gauss Kruger transverse cylindrical conformal projection introduced in 1951, based on ellipsoidKrasovski 1940; Stereographic secant conformal perspective azimuthal projection 1970 plan introducedin 1970, based on ellipsoid Krasovski 1940;UTM conformal secant transversal cylindrical projection(Universal Transverse Mercator) introduced in 1947 based on WGS 84 ellipsoid.
maps, cartographic projections, Muffling, Cassini, Bonne, Lambert- Cholesky, Gauss Kruger, UTM, Stereographic projection