Agriculture is one of the main engines pushing a society towards change, having influences both in the economic and social environments. Agriculture, in turn, is influenced by various factors that come out of human control, such as natural and technical factors. Some of the main natural factors are the relief and the type of soil, while technical factors are represented by mechanization, irrigation, chemistry, and so on. Agriculture also has a significant impact in the social sphere. The process of social division finds its foundations in agriculture. This is easily observable by the emergence and development of new branches of material production derived from agriculture or based on the provision of food by agriculture. The paper presents the implementation of a specialized agricultural system. The subject addressed is the establishment of a fruit plantation and the presentation of economic and technological features. (ARDELEAN 1979, BORCEAN 1996) The area allocated to this project is 4 ha. This area is divided into 3 areas where 3 different types of trees are planted. The varieties planted are apple (Jonathan, Florina, and Golden delicious), pear (Daciana, Aromată de Bistriţa, and Untoasă bosc) and plum (Centenar, Stanley, and Tuleu gras). The areas will be the same for the plots where apple trees and plum trees are planted (1.1 ha) and plum trees are allocated an area of 1.8 ha. Before starting the planting process, work is needed to prepare the land, namely, cleaning the soil of plant residues, applying a product to improve the fertility of the land, and levelling it. The size of the pits in which the trees are inserted have a stand-alone size for all plots of 60x60x60 cm. (COSTE 1986, IANOȘ 1997) A tree plantation requires year-round care. In the spring and in the summer, when temperatures rise, trees get watered in case of drought, foliar fertilizers and treatments against diseases and pests are applied, shoots starting in unwanted areas are cleaned and, last but not least, the shoots are lead and the grass in the tree area is cleaned. When autumn comes, work is carried out to remove the dry branches and, if necessary, the resting process is hastened by removing the leaves. This plan focuses mainly on the costs of implementing fruit tree cultivation. The total investment amounts to 330,119 lei. But, as time goes on, the costs become lower and lower, and the need to invest will be much lower in order to maintain the tree plantation within normal operating parameters. (IOAN 2005)
agriculture, tree growing, investment, cultivation technologies
Soil Sciences
Presentation: poster