Aliev N.N.2, Chursin A.I. 2, Okros Adalbert3, Niță Lucian3, Casiana Mihuț3, Borcean Adrian3, Mărăzan Vlad4 Tajik Agrarian University named after Sh. Shotemur, Republic of Tajikistan
Abstract: The territory of Tajikistan has unique natural and climatic conditions, and also differs in its complexities and characteristics. The article presents the division of the territory according to the geographic, geological and biological characteristics of the republic, gives an assessment of the ecological state of the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, identifies the main problems in this area and proposes measures to eliminate them. For each of the newly created agricultural landscapes, depending on the altitude location, with certain violations, clear characteristics are given. Raise the issue of pollution of air and water basins of the republic, the sources of these pollution are given. Attention is focused on the quality of water, in connection with which the issue of the Aral Sea has been raised. Summarizing the highlighted environmental problems are noted, the required immediate measures to eliminate them. The elevation marks of the republic's relief surface range from 300 to 7500 meters above sea level. Such a range of heights in a relatively limited area, only 143.1 thousand square kilometers, predetermined a variety of natural and climatic conditions: from the sultry arid valleys of the South-West and North of the country to the high-altitude cold deserts of the Pamirs. Mountain ecosystems occupy from 600 to 7000 m above sea level. They concentrate from 70% to 80% of the species diversity of communities, as well as most of the summer pastures and forests. In the foothills and plains, semi-desert and desert zones are usually located. By geographic, geological and biological characteristics, the republic is divided into: Sughd-Zaravshan, Central-Tajikistan, South-Tajikistan, Gorno-Badakhshan ecological provinces. Thus, the territory of Tajikistan is represented by a variety of ecological provinces with unique natural and biological features. Today, the state of natural ecosystems in Tajikistan is unsatisfactory and requires studying the reasons for their deterioration. Over the course of 30 years, under the influence of anthropogenic pressure, their area has significantly decreased, and some are under threat of extinction. As a result of land development, the area of natural low and medium mountain ecosystems has also decreased. Each of the newly created agricultural landscapes, depending on the high-rise location, has certain violations. In low-lying areas - in areas of irrigated agriculture, the most common problem is a decrease in the bio-productivity of the territory. It arises due to a violation of the water-salt balance, leading to flooding, waterlogging and salinization of territories, as well as due to a violation of irrigation regimes and imperfection of irrigation systems. Another problem that negatively affects the ecological situation of lowland agricultural landscapes is the excessive use of pesticides, insecticides and mineral fertilizers. One of the factors contributing to the deterioration of the ecological situation on these lands was the replacement of cotton-alfalfa crop rotations with cotton-cereal (mainly wheat) crop rotations, which led to a decrease in soil fertility everywhere.
ecological state, problems, the Republic of Tajikistan
Soil Sciences
Presentation: poster