A.STOICA1, R. TRUȚAN1, V. NAGY2, Anișoara DUMA COPCEA1, A. OKROS 1University of Agricultural Sciences Banat Veterninară ,,King Michael I of Romania”Timisoara, Arad Way, no. 119, Romania, Phone: +4025627475, Fax: +40256200296, 2Politehnica University of Timisoara, Mechanical Engineering Faculty
Agriculture, with all its branches, is one of the few economic branches that has a positive energy balance under the conditions in which it must ensure, in quantitative and qualitative terms, the vital element for the existence of an increasing number of people: food. The main ways of reducing energy consumption in agriculture are the choosing properly the energy base in the agricultural holdings; reducing chemical fertilizer consumption in favour of natural ones; reducing herbicides and pesticides technologically; using conservative soil work systems; increasing the energy efficiency of agricultural aggregates; reducing harvest losses; and optimizing mechanization technologies. Ploughing is the basic work of the soil, performed with a plough and consisting in the turning of the furrow, soil aerating, crushing, and levelling. To accomplish this operation, the plough has a long iron that cuts the furrow laterally and detaches it from the rest of the soil, a furrow that breaks the furrow at its lower part and an earth-board that lifts and turns the furrows into smaller soil parts. Ploughing aerates the soil on a certain depth, creating an optimal ratio between the capillary and non-capillary lacunar spaces. It incorporates stubble, plant debris and fertilizers. This is how the soil is enriched in organic matter and restored, to some extent, in humus. The weeds are destroyed by incorporating both vegetal parts and seeds. Some weed seeds incorporated in deeper soil can no longer reach the surface. Good conditions for the accumulation of water in the soil from the falling precipitation are, thus, created. If the water is in excess, more wavy and deeper ploughing reduces excess water.
agricultural aggregates, tractor steering, ploughing, performing
sciences soil
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