F. USCAT1, R.TRUȚAN1, V. NAGHY2, Anișoara Duma Copcea1, A. OKROS1 1University of Agricultural Sciences Banat Veterninară ,,King Michael I of Romania”Timisoara, Arad Way, no. 119, Romania, Phone: +4025627475, Fax: +40256200296, 2Politehnica University of Timisoara, Mechanical Engineering Faculty anisoaradumacopcea@usab-tm.ro
Controlling diseases, pests and weeds in vineyards can be done by several means, of which, agrotechnical means, which are easy to reach for viticulturists, give good results and are relatively cheap, but require a very high volume of works; biological means, which consist in controlling vegetable pests using other insects or birds as enemies; chemical means, which are based on the use of pesticides. The last ones have gained increasing importance because, with minimum efforts and expenses control is achieved more easily than by other means. The application of pesticides to control diseases, pests and weeds can be done in various forms, such as: dry treatments, when powders are used to dusty vine; wet treatments, applied by spraying and involving the use of pesticides in the form of solutions, suspensions or emulsions. Pesticides are classified, depending on their destination, in herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Herbicides are chemicals that, applied on the ground or plants, cause their death. In relation to the crops on which these herbicides are applied, they must not harm their growth and development, but they have pronounced effects on weeds. Fungicides are pesticides used in controlling diseases. They may be mineral substances (sulphur, copper sulphate, copper oxychloride, mercury chloride, etc.), organic-mineral compounds or organic compounds. Most fungicides are applied preventively, prior to the occurrence of the disease. Insecticides are pesticides used to control pests. They are classified in three groups, according to their main action, namely: ingestion, contact and breathing.
control spraying machines, grapevine, pesticides
field crops and pastures
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