Ramona Loredana TOPORAN1; Marinel HORABLAGA1; Ionel SAMFIRA1; 1Banat’s University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Science, Calea Aradului, no. 119, Timisoara, Romania
Grasslands make up about 40% of our planet's land mass and play an important role in contributing to carbon sequestration, soil bio-geochemistry and maintaining biodiversity. One of the main families that make up the plant carpet is the family Poaceae known taxonomically with over 10,000 species characterized and classified according to a variety of morphological features related to the molecular characters. Genome analysis studies have suggested that species of the subfamily Pooideae have a similar chromosomal structure, being derived from a common ancestor with 7 pairs of chromosomes. Among the species of this family, Lolium perenne stands out due to its high agronomic productivity influenced by climate and soil conditions and hereditary traits such as flowering time. Lolium perenne is a self-incompatible species pollinated by wind, and several researchers have discovered the existence of significant patterns of geographical variation in terms of diversity indices and allele frequencies. The natural variation at phenotypic and genotypic level is ensured by a reproduction system that requires cross-pollination, producing pronounced genetic variations in the morphological and molecular characteristics of and among its many varieties. Analysis of the frequency and distribution of genetic variation in natural perennial ryegrass populations has supported the view that its center of origin is the Middle East, and its distribution has expanded following a clinical geographic model, most of which is in Europe. At present it is considered that due to its excessive nature and recent domestication the genetic diversity of the varieties is very high. Reproduction programs generate extensive phenotypic data covering the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the germplasm used annually to select the best performing plants or populations. We consider in the light of these scientific results obtained globally that the species Lolium perenne through genetic diversity is a potential resource for the development of reference populations specific to genomic selection. The genetic improvement of perennial ryegrass provides an inexhaustible source of increasingly diverse genetic diversity in the world in terms of the challenges of environmental factors.
Lolium perenne, productivity, genetic diversity, reproduction
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