FEATURES OF MYCORRIZAS TYPE SYMBIOSIS AT DIFFERENT PLANTS FAMILIES PUBLISHEDSilvia Prunar, Auruţa Dîrlea, Renata Şumălan, Lucian Ghinea, Mihaela Fericean
The present experiment highlights the process of colonization with mycorrhizas of the host plant, which starts with an exchange between the two partners of the symbiosis, followed by joining and fungi penetration in the plant cell. The symbiosis between plants and mycorrhizas fungi requires not only some changes in the root morphology of the studied plants, but also alterations of the fungal cell. The researches demonstrate the association of the hifa with host tissue, the crossing of the intracellular spaces, the spread in the cortical cells and the formation of coiled hifa within them. The cell wall crossing varies according to the anatomy of root, but it involves two possible ways: the mechanical way and the enzymatic way. Some hyphae remain in the intercellular space and some of them form arburscular structures. In this experiment was inoculated and highlighted the mycorrhiza of genus Glomus at the plant species as: Zea mays (on which we performed root cross sections), Juniperus scapula, Spireea biliardi, Pennisetum alopecuroides. In order to highlight the mycorrhizas symbiosis, the fragments plants were taken from the root of the studied plants, they were fixed, were included in modules, were molded and semifine sectioned. It was pointing out that, after the inoculation and the symbiosis between the mycorrhizas and Zea mays species, the hypha penetrates the intracellular spaces of the epidermis, crosses the hypodermis and reaches the cortex of the root, which is tightly associated with the host tissue and after that crosses the intracellular spaces and spreads in the cortical cells where they form so called hyphae complexes. In the cross-sections it can be see some strong vacuolated cells containing a dense cytoplasm and others containing in cytoplasm bulky nuclei and even highly vacuolated cells with signs of advanced senescence. At the Juniperus scapula and Spireea biliardi species are highlighted extra and intra cellular associations of vesicular type. In the case of fungi symbiosis with mycorrhizas of the Glomus genus with Pennisetum alopecuroides species, it can be seen, beside the hyphae associations by vesicular type and associations by arbuscular type, in different stages of development.
mycorrhizas, ectomycorrhizas, endomycorrhizas, symbiosis, rooth of plants, hyphae