Ovidiu Buzgău, Constantin Bele, Maria Morar, Cristian Matea, Alexandru Salontai
The interest of the rape, known and cultivated since ancient times, has increased greatly in recent decades due to its importance as a source of raw materials for industry, nutrition and for its potential as a renewable energy source. The beneficial effects of this culture for soil restoration and conservation are well known. The experiences made during the years 2005-2006 were aimed by comparative study of some varieties of rapeseed in order to introduce the winter rapeseed culture as an alternative to the summer rapeseed under the environmental conditions of the north-west plain of Transylvania. The experiences in the field and in the laboratory studied the influence of the plant sown density rows for different dosages of the fertilizers, as well as the production and quality of the rapeseed. The studied material consists of two varieties rapeseed: Heros (created by the company UNION SAAT) and Olindigo. The experimental technique in the field was of poli-factorial order with the following factors: variety (Heros and Olindigo), sowing density (75, 100 and 125 g.k./sqm), dosage of chemical fertilizers (200, 300 and 400 kg/ha), resulting in 18 variants experimental work plus the control. In the laboratory were determined the elements of productivity (number of plants per sq.m, number of branches per plant, number of siliques, number of seeds in silique), the thousand seeds weight according to the Romanian standard SR 6123/99, the hectolitric weight according to the Romanian standard S.R. 6124/99, the seed oil content, the oil production and the physical production (harvesting with combine). The obtained results were statistically evaluated by the analysis of variance and Duncan test. The climatic conditions were monitored continuously. Results showed that the genetic and the technological factors influenced the productivity of the rapeseed crop and its quality (oil content and therefore the yield per hectare). For the two tested varieties there resulted no significant differences under the production conditions of the climate of the years 2005 and 2006 taking into account the interaction between the sowing density and fertilization level. The results of the determination of productivity factors were better for a smaller sowing density (75 g.k./sqm) (also lower costs). The values resulted for the hectolitric weights are not significantly different for the two experimented varieties, where the density can be found in a positive correlation with them. In the case of higher sowing density the values are in negative correlation with the thousand seeds weight. However, the fertilization in higher doses did not stimulate the yield, probably due to lower biological potential of winter rape.
rapeseed; crop; Transylvania
Presentation: oral