ADMINISTRATION OF BIODIVERSITY OF THE AUTOCHTHONES OLIVE TREES IN ALBANIA PUBLISHEDErta Dodona, Hairi Ismaili, Antonio Cimato, Valdete Vorpsi
Olive trees in Albania, located in the East Shore of Mediterranean, are considered as an important point of biologic diversity. Referring to Zhukovsk and Bahtjejev, our country is included in the seventh Mediterranean climate centre, based on the origin and formation of the cultivated plants. As conclusion: Albanian flora is genetically linked by the Euro-Asiatic flora of the East and West Mediterranean. For 20 years in Albania have been tried to explore, characterize and evaluation of the existent biodiversity. These kind of researches that have had their origin since 1985 in the Olive Trees Institute, have been undertaken in order to: prevent genetic erosion in the Olea family. Taking into account: the spontaneous expansion of oleo plants by the age over 20 centuries, the diversity of the varieties, the number and exploitation of the olive trees before 1940 (1200), climate conditions and the evidence about the antic olive culture the main centers of olive trees diversity are: Antic olive trees of the Tirana region (Preze, Ndroq, Petrele, Linze, Brar, Kruje) Antic olive trees of the Vlora region (Kanine, Bestrove, Narte, Panaja, Trevllazer, Dhermi, Himare, Palase, Qeparo, Borsh). Identification activity did take place in two phases: firstly: identification of the list of the autochthon cultivars, through consultations of the archive for the different varieties of the Albanian territory. Secondly: evaluation of the autochthon varieties, their origin and as well their identification, preservation and recuperation for deeper evaluation. Actually in Albania there are identified 46 genotypes. Out of which 22 have been fully analyzed in terms of morphologic character and genetic variability, 11 are accessions or synonymous. Three cultivars are widely disseminated. Today, 22 olive cultivars are the biodiversity cultivars to be used in the olive plantations of Albania. Regarding the biochemical and molecular analyses, this was able only in the last 5 years. For all the Albanian cultivars (22) was undertaken RAPD analyses, RAPD analyses of 22 cultivars hold up (support) the hypothesis of the autochthon origin of our olive trees and their limited dissemination out of their core origin areas. Have been described agronomic and technologic characteristics of the main variety and cloning list. Physic characteristics of the olive oil of the main cultivars in correlation with vermin resistant. The purpose of germ-plasma characterization was the total and actual knowledge of this biological diversity through application of a program of variety characterization: i) to have the best and proper genotype for different agronomic demands which directly influence in the productivity and the quality of the olive oil; and (ii) to supply the private farmers and other entities all the varietals asset which have contributed to the olive oil production in Albania. In Albania there are 5 olive varieties, which are considered as economically viable, because the area occupied by them is 5 % of the total olive area. The most popular variety is "Kalinjot", which cover 45 % of the total area.
biodiversity; autochthones cultivar; RAPD-analysis