INCIDENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES AND ITS MYCOTOXINS IN CEREALS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA PUBLISHEDCiprian Stroia, Cristina Tabuc, Alina Neacşu
Cereals are substrates favourable for the fungi development. The micromycetes proliferation can have undesired consequences: from the alteration of the aspect and of the nutritive features of the raw materials, incidence of mycoses or allergies till to the production and accumulation of mycotoxins. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presence of the Fusarium species in cereals collected from different areas of Banat region and to determinate the concentrations of the mycotoxins synthesised by them, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, mycotoxins with a high frequency in the cereals from other regions of the country (south-east). In Europe were done studies (SCOOP projects) for the evaluation of the humans’ exposure to these contaminants. Romania wasn’t included in these studied because it has became later member of European Union. Taking in account the Romanina climate, the fungal contamination and mycotoxic is different in comparison with the one determined in other European countries. The researches realised on cereals originating from other regions of Romania have highlighted the presence of the Fusarium species and the mycotoxins produced in concentrations that many times were overpassing the maximal limits allowed by EU. There were investigated from mycologic and mycotoxicologic 56 samples of cereals (maize, wheat, barley and oat) collected from different areas of Banat from mycologic and mycotoxicologic. The fungal contamination degree was done using the direct method for the determination of the total number of colonies and fungi, and the mycotoxins concentration was determined using the immune-enzymatic method ELISA. The obtained results are similar with the ones obtained in the framework of the investigations done in the south-east of Romania: the Fusarium species were present in all the studied samples; the most frequent species were Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and F. culmorum (W. G. Smith) Sacc. Other Fusarium species identified there were: F. poae (Peck) Wollenw., F. oxysporum Schltdl. and F. vertilliciloides (Sacc.) Nirenb. (F. moniliforme Sheldon). From mycotoxicologic point of view the two analysed mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, were identified in more than 90% of the samples and 70% of those were containing both mycotoxins. 25% from the analysed samples were containing deoxynivalenol in concentrations that were overpassing the levels allowed by EU (1750 µg/kg), and 40% from samples were containing zearalenone concentrations greater then 100 µg/kg, the maxim level allowed by EU.
Fusarium; cereals; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; fumonizine